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研究生:蔡衡
研究生(外文):Heng Tsai
論文名稱:台灣地區河階地形之複合對比
論文名稱(外文):Multiple Approaches to the Correlation of River Terraces in Taiwan
指導教授:孫鎮球宋國城宋國城引用關係
指導教授(外文):Robert J. SunQuo-Cheng Sung
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:地球科學系碩博士班
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:143
中文關鍵詞:階地斷層
外文關鍵詞:faultterrace
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  在台灣的許多地方都可以看到如階梯狀的階地地形,透過階地的對比,將相同時期形成的階地面串連、關連起來,可供作為度量地表變形量的依據。然而在許多階地中(尤其高位河階),可供定年的物質不容易尋得,因此地形學者僅能視階地的分佈及特徵(如標高、比高、坡降、寬度、階數、崖高…等)進行階地對比。
  本研究以地形定年法為主,並輔以崖地形分析、重建河流下切過程、以及土壤化育程度的分析等方法,分別對台灣東北部蘭陽溪上游的沖積扇階地,以及位於台灣中部地區八卦台地南部的階地、大甲溪的新社河階群以及陳有蘭溪的沖積扇階地,檢討並驗証前人研究之對比結果外,探討台灣地區的階地,是否皆具相同的成因?抑或是隨著空間、時間的不同而異?研究結果顯示蘭陽溪流域位於上游的階地,其形成原因與鄰近沖積扇堆積時造成堰塞作用,導致局部侵蝕基準面變動有關。八卦台地南部的階地係河流作用所造成,受到區域構造抬升的作用,河流於遷移過程中,由南向北漸次下切形成一系列的階地。新社河階群的形成則受到類似集集地震在石岡、卓蘭地區呈現隆起的構造所控制,這種構造自晚更新世以來即已存在,且隨著地震的發生,逐漸向東北方遷移,並可以由至少四次「構造抬升→河流改道→突洲生成」河流反應構造變動的循環模式加以解釋。
  地形定年的數據反應台灣地區階地成因的複雜特性,各地區階地的成因隨著空間、時間的不同而異,並不能以單一原因解釋。基本上,高位紅土階地(LT)中最低位者的形成應與全球海水準的變化有關,而較近代非紅土覆蓋的河階(FT)則多與流域內地表隨時、空的不等量抬升有關。此外河流的複雜反應,以及地形對氣候變化的敏感程度等等,對部分地區河階的發育而言,亦有其不可忽視的重要性。
  The river terrace is one of the most prominent features in Taiwan. It, as a geomorphic marker, provides a reference frame against which to gauge the differemtial or absolute deformation. Unfortunately, lack of datable material (for instance the drift wood for C14 dating) in the field led local geomorphologists to correlate the terraces highly relied upon simple parameters such as altitude, scarp height, continuity of terrace distribution, etc.
  In this study, the morphologic dating technique and other approaches such as examining development of scarp retreat, cut-and-fill history of river behaviour and degree of soil development, were used to correlate the terraces in Langyang, Pakua and Hsinhse areas, respectively. The resulted correlation indicates: (1) The changes in the local base-level of erosion play an important role in the formation of the fan-terraces in the upper reach of Lanyang river. The local base-level elevation changed as a result of alluvial fan deposition, rather than tectonic uplift or climatic changes. (2) The asymmetric terraces of southern Pakua tableland were proved to be fluvial origin resulted from regional uplift northward. (3) In Hsinhse river terraces, the terraces in western group have been continually deformed by a pop-up structure which hinge is coincident with that of the coseismic pop-up deformation. It suggests the pop-up structure of the Chichi earthquake has developed since late Pleistocene and has migrated northwards along with tectonic activity of the Chelungpu fault. Four cycles of tectonic uplift→channel migration→point bar formation were recognized in sequence for the Hsinhse river terraces and served as a model for the river in response to growing tectonics.
  The data from morphologic dating may resolve the complexity for river terraces formed in Taiwan. It suggests the global sea level fluctuation is responsible for the formation of LT terraces. The uplift rate of the active mountain building process, which varies with time and space, resulting in river aggradation and degradation seems most favorable for the FT terraces formed in recent geologic time younger than 30 ka. However, there are other factors add ambiguity on terrace formation in Taiwan.
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 動機與目的 1
1-2 研究區概述 7
1-2.1 蘭陽溪上游 7
1-2.2 八卦台地 11
1-2.3 新社地區 14
1-2.4 陳有蘭溪 18
第二章 前人研究 20
2-1 崖地形與地形定年 20
2-2 階地對比方法 29
2-2.1 利用地形特徵 29
2-2.2 絕對定年 31
第三章 地形定年法 32
3-1 基本原理 32
3-1.1 數學模型 32
3-1.2 崖坡模擬 34
3-2 定年應用 36
3-2.1 遍歷性法則 36
3-2.2 可靠性與驗證 39
3-3 誤差來源 41
3-3.1 遠野角效應 41
3-3.2 底岩出露 45
3-3.3 邊界條件 49
第四章 蘭陽溪上游沖積扇階地─暫時性基準面變動的產物 51
4-1 崖地形分析 52
4-1.1 野外調查與測量 53
4-1.2 回歸分析 56
4-1.3 崖坡發育模式 59
4-2 沖積扇階地之對比 61
4-3 暫時性侵蝕基準面的影響 64
第五章 八卦台地南部階地群─階地成因的釐清 71
5-1 野外的觀察 71
5-2 地形定年的証據 72
5-3 階面土壤的証據 74
5-3.1 土壤分析方法 74
5-3.2 土壤化育程度 75
5-4 階地成因與地形演育 84
第六章 新社河階群─伴隨車籠埔斷層活動的隆起構造帶的地形證據 85
6-1 地形定年的研究 86
6-2 重建河流下切過程 87
6-2.1 方法與步驟 88
6-2.2 階面對比結果 88
6-3 構造的傾動 93
6-4 河流反應構造變動 100
第七章 綜合討論 104
7-1 階地對比法之探討 104
7-1.1 利用地形特徵對比法 104
7-1.2 地形定年之誤差 105
7-1.3 結合土壤學的應用 108
7-2 階地形成因素之探討 109
7-2.1 全球海水準的影響 110
7-2.2 古氣候變化的影響 111
7-2.3 構造因子的影響 115
7-2.4 其它因子的影響 116
第八章 結論 118
參考文獻 120
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