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研究生:番成正
研究生(外文):Cheng-Cheng Fan
論文名稱:優勢水流對坡地安定影響之研究-以草嶺為例
論文名稱(外文):The influence of the preferential flow path on slope stability - taking Tasoling as an example
指導教授:徐國錦徐國錦引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuo-Chin Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:資源工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:173
中文關鍵詞:優勢水流坡地安定
外文關鍵詞:preferential flow pathslope stability
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  地層中常由於物理過程、化學作用與生物活動而形成優勢水流路徑(preferential flow path),優勢水流路徑為流場中水流與污染物偏好的路徑,如介質之大孔隙(macropore)、岩體之破裂面與高傳導係數連續區,其為水流與污染物快速移動的區域。優勢水流路徑的存在,已在野地試驗中被觀察到,但其對於水流及坡地塴塌之影響尚無量化之評估。本研究的目的在探討優勢水流對坡地安定的影響,使用序率方式研究坡地之水流,探討氣象因子(降雨)和土壤分佈對坡地崩塌之影響。研究先以一假設案例進行地質統計模式之建構,探討不同採樣方法對地質統計模式建構之影響,結果顯示,階層式隨機採樣較均勻隨機採樣能獲得較多現地統計資訊。接著使用地質統計之逐步高斯模擬法與模擬退火法進行圖象模擬,探討何者較能掌握真實場優勢水流路徑之空間特徵,結果顯示,模擬退火隨機場由於能使用較多之統計資訊,故較能掌握現地特徵。現地應用方面,本研究以草嶺、清水溪流域為現地實驗場址,分析優勢水流路徑在坡地地層垂直面之可能分佈。在垂直坡面上之優勢水流路徑調查方面,使用現地採樣進行室內試驗求取相關土壤特性參數,並以土壤穿刺阻力計區分現地土壤與岩石區域,再整合現地及室內試驗結果進行地質統計分析,以建構符合現地優勢水流路徑之水力傳導係數隨機場。最後使用草嶺四年平均雨量進行坡地水流模擬,計算地下水壓及推估坡地安定係數,以瞭解地層中優勢水流路徑對坡地安定之影響,結果顯示,優勢水流路徑所存在的暫棲飽和水層其坡地安定係數低於1.0,証明優勢水流為影響坡地崩塌的重要因子。
  Preferential flow path is often formed by physics process, chemical action and biological activity under ground surface. Soil macropores, such as cracks and channels that formed by roots and soil animals, are recognized as important pathways for water and pollutant and leads to the preferential flow. The existence of preferential flow path have been observed by many field experiments. However, the influence of slope stability by preferential flow have not been evaluate systematicaly. The purpose of this research is to analyze the influence of preferential flow on slope statbility. Stochastic approach is used to analyze the flow in slope. Influence of the preccipitation and the spatial distribution of soil on slope failure is analyzed. First, the geostatistical model is constructed by a hypothetical image to compare two different sampling methods. One is the uniformly sampling method. The other is the stratified sampling method. The result shows that the stratified sampling method is better than the uniformly sampling method in that it offers more geostatistical information. Then sequential gaussian simulation and simulated annealing are used to reconstruct the images. The result shows that simulated annealing is superior in better reconstructing the image because of its ability of using more statistical information. The analysis of the slope stability is applied to field. Thirty-seven core samples taken from an outcrop were measured for the hydraulic conductivity. To distinguish the spatial locations of soil and rock, soil penetrometer was used in field at sixteen locations. All these information are included in the geostatistical analysis to simulate the spatial variation of the soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally the slope stability is investigated through the numerical modeling. Our result shows that the existence of preferential flow path has profound influence on the slope stability.
摘要…………………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
Abstract……………………………………………………………………Ⅱ
目錄…………………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
表目錄………………………………………………………………………Ⅵ
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………Ⅶ
第一章 緒論………………………………………………………………1
1-1 研究動機與目的………………………………………………………1
1-2 前人研究與背景………………………………………………………1
1-3 研究方法與流程………………………………………………………8
第二章 地質統計相關理論………………………………………………10
2-1 地質統計理論…………………………………………………………10
2-2 模擬……………………………………………………………………14
2-2-1 非條件模擬…………………………………………………………14
2-2-2 條件模擬……………………………………………………………16
2-3 逐步高斯模擬法………………………………………………………17
2-4 模擬退火法……………………………………………………………19
2-4-1 模擬退火法介紹……………………………………………………19
2-4-2 模擬退火法於GSLIB圖象模擬之應用 ……………………………24
2-4-3 SASIM模擬原理 ……………………………………………………25
2-4-4 退火計劃( Annealing Schedule )………………………………29
第三章 地質統計模式建構………………………………………………31
3-1 假設案例介紹…………………………………………………………31
3-2 均勻採樣與階層式隨機採樣…………………………………………39
3-2-1 均勻採樣法…………………………………………………………39
3-2-2 階層式隨機採樣法( Stratified random sampling scheme ).45
3-2-3 階層式採樣法與均勻式採樣法之比較……………………………54
3-3 高斯隨機場與模擬退火隨機場之比較………………………………55
第四章 現場案例模擬……………………………………………………64
4-1 研究區概述……………………………………………………………64
4-1-1 草嶺地質概況………………………………………………………64
4-1-2 試驗場概況…………………………………………………………66
4-2 研究區採樣方法介紹…………………………………………………66
4-2-1 格網的建置…………………………………………………………67
4-2-2 土壤的採樣…………………………………………………………68
4-2-3 穿刺試驗……………………………………………………………70
4-3 基本統計分析…………………………………………………………74
4-4 變差函數擬合…………………………………………………………76
4-5 坡地高斯隨機場與模擬退火隨機場之產生…………………………84
4-6 坡地水流數值模擬……………………………………………………93
4-6-1 水流理論……………………………………………………………93
4-6-2 坡地水流模式建構及參數給定……………………………………94
4-6-3 坡地水流模擬………………………………………………………96
4-7 坡地安定分析…………………………………………………………100
4-7-1 有效應力與安全係數………………………………………………100
4-7-2 坡地安全係數之計算………………………………………………103
第五章 結論與建議………………………………………………………108
5-1 結論……………………………………………………………………108
5-2 建議……………………………………………………………………109
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………111
附錄一、均勻採樣與階層式隨機採樣程式碼……………………………119
附錄二、坡地水流與安全係數模擬之自動化程序………………………128
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