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研究生:沈玟璋
研究生(外文):Weng-Chang Shen
論文名稱:利用摻雜技術結合橘色之主-客發光層及藍色發光層研製出發近似白光之有機發光二極體
論文名稱(外文):Fabrication of a near white organic light-emitting diode using doping technique by combining orange-emitting guest-host layer with blue-emitting layer
指導教授:蘇炎坤蘇炎坤引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yan-Kuin Su
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:微電子工程研究所碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:107
中文關鍵詞:有機發光二極體
外文關鍵詞:organic light-emitting diode
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  自1987年起多層有機發光二極體被Tang及Vanslyke兩人所論證出來後,有機發光二極體便吸引眾人之目光,不外乎有許多的優點,像高對比度、低應答時間、自發光、高亮度、視角廣、厚度薄、應用在全彩化上等等,因為有這麼多的優點,使得有機發光二極體在次世代的平面顯示器上佔有極大的應用。
  然而在眾多光色中,以白光最為重要,因為白光可用來當作液晶顯示器的背光源或應用在全彩化的技術上,所以白光有機發光二極體對整個顯示器的發展極為重要;也因為如此,本實驗之目的即在研發出白光有機發光二極體。
  而此實驗所使用的主要材料有NPB、DPVBi、Alq3:DCM、LiF;NPB在此當為電洞傳輸層、DPVBi為藍色發光材料、Alq3:DCM則為發橘光之共蒸著層;但因為Alq3 為綠色發光材料,而DCM為紅色發光材料,混合兩者之光色產生橘色光,其中之重點在於找出兩者之共蒸著鍍率比例為何值時為最佳,而從實驗結果得知共蒸著鍍率以1:0.01時為最佳值且此時之厚度為600Å,而在ITO及Alq3:DCM兩層中插進DPVBi層且其厚度在35Å時,可達到之最大輝度為1032 cd/m2。而後為了增進其電子注入效率,改善其亮度及降低操作電壓,在有機層跟Al陰極金屬中間會插入一層薄的LiF當作緩衝層,增進電子注入效率,且量測到的最佳厚度為10Å,如此一來便可在此實驗中得到一個最佳近似白光之有機發光二極體
  在最佳之結構下所量測到的CIE座標為(0.3520,0.2956),在12V之偏壓下所得到的近似白光之輝度可達到8010 cd/m2,而最大的輝度在20V偏壓下可達到15000 cd/m2。
  Since multilayer organic light-emitting diode had been demonstrated by Tang and Vanslyke in 1987, organic light-emitting diode has received much attention due to its many advantages, such as high contrast, fast response, self emitting, high brightness, wide viewing angle, thin form factor, and supports in full color application, etc. Because of these advantages, organic light-emitting diode has great applications in flat-panel display of next generation.
  However among many colors of light source, white light is the most important of all because it can be backlight for liquid crystal displays or apply to full color technology. As a result, white organic light-emitting diode plays an important role in the development of all displays. In addition, the purpose of this experiment is to fabricate a near white organic light-emitting diode.
  And the major materials of this experiment were NPB, DPVBi, Alq3:DCM, LiF. NPB layer was used as a hole transport layer. DPVBi and Alq3:DCM layers were used as a blue emitting and orange emitting layers, respectively. Alq3 was a green emitting material and DCM was a red emitting material. And the most important point for the two materials was to find the optimum deposition rate for each other in coevaporation. From this experiment we can get the optimum value of the deposition rate for the two materials was 1:0.01 and the thickness of the Alq3:DCM layer was 600Å. Then we inserted the DPVBi layer between ITO and Alq3:DCM layers, and when the thickness of DPVBi was 35Å we got the maximum luminance (1032 cd/m2) for this structure. In order to increase the electron injection efficiency, improve the brightness, and lower operation voltages, we inserted a thin film of LiF layer between organic and cathode of Al layers. And the optimum thickness of LiF layer is 10Å. As a result we got a near white organic light-emitting diode for the final structure.
  So from this experiment we got the optimum value of CIE was (0.3520, 0.2956), the luminance at near white light emitting was 8010 cd/m2 at 12V, and the maximum luminance was 15000 cd/m2 at 20V.
Abstract ( in Chinese )………………………………………………….………..I
Abstract ( in English )………………………………………………………….III
Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………...VI
Content…………………………………………………………………………..VII
Figure Captions…………………………………………………………X

Chapter 1 Introduction…………………………………………………...1
1-1 Introduction……………………………………………….…1
1-1-1 The development of organic light-emitting diode…...2
1-1-2 The advantages and disadvantages of organic light-emitting diode………2
1-1-3 The two forms of organic light-emitting diode displays – passive matrix and active matrix displays………………………….5
1-1-4 The ways of organic light-emitting diode to reach full color and its application……………..7
1-1-5 The applications and advantages of white organic
light-emitting diode…8
1-1-6 An analysis of color mixing in CIE…………………...9
1-2 OLED and PLED…………………………………………..10
1-2-1 Organic light-emitting diode………………………11
1-2-2 Polymer light-emitting diode……………………...12
1-3 Principles of operation mechanism of OLED……………...13
1-3-1 Doping mechanism………………………………..14
1-3-2 Emission mechanism……………………………...17
1-3-3 Device efficiency………………………………….18
1-4 Structure of organic light-emitting diode………………….24
1-4-1 Anode……………………………………………...25
1-4-2 Organic layers……………………………………...26
1-4-3 Buffer layer………………………………………...28
1-4-4 Hole blocking layer………………………………..29
1-4-5 Cathode…………………………………………….30
1-5 Degradation of organic light-emitting diode……………….31
1-6 The purpose of the thesis…………………………………...33

Chapter 2 Experimental procedures and systems………..…….35
2-1 Materials used in this experiment………………………….35
2-2 Experimental system……………………………………….36
2-3 Experimental procedures…………………………………..37
2-3-1 Substrate cleaning procedures…………………….37
2-3-2 Growth conditions and procedures………………..39
2-4 Measurement systems……………………………………...40
2-4-1 Current – Voltage measurement…………………..40
2-4-2 Optical measurement……………………………...40
2-4-3 CIE measurement…………………………………41

Chapter 3 Results and Discussions………………………………..…42
3-1 ITO/NPB(400Å)/Alq3(XÅ)/Al(2500Å)…………………...42
3-2 ITO/NPB(XÅ)/Alq3(600Å)/Al(2500Å)…………………...44
3-3 ITO/NPB(500Å)/Alq3:DCM(1:X)(600Å)/Al(2500Å)….44
3-4 ITO/NPB(500Å)/DPVBi(XÅ)/Alq3:DCM(1:0.01)(600Å)/Al(2500Å)……...47
3-5 ITO/NPB(500Å)/DPVBi(35Å)/Alq3:DCM(1:0.01)(600Å)/LiF(XÅ)/Al(2500Å)………50

Chapter 4 Conclusions……………………………………………………53
Chapter 5 Future work……………………………………………..……55

Reference………………………………………………………………………56
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