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研究生:張仲良
研究生(外文):Chung-Liang Chang
論文名稱:GPS頻段內干擾抑制訊號處理研究
論文名稱(外文):Study of In-Band Interference Suppression Signal Processing for GPS
指導教授:莊智清莊智清引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jyh-Ching Juang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:全球衛星導航快速傅立葉轉換遞迴式最小平方法虛擬衛星
外文關鍵詞:GPSFFTNATFRLSFBNNERNNpseudolite
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  本論文之目的為研究一具頻段內干擾抑制能力之GPS訊號處理方法以增進GPS接收器偵測與抑制干擾之能力。隨著GPS應用之普及,GPS之干擾抑制成為一不可忽略的話題。雖然在GPS的設計上採用了分碼多工的技術以取得相當程度之干擾抑制能力,但對高精度定位要求之載具工作在充斥無線電波之環境中,有必要研製干擾抑制機制以取得較可靠且精確之定位。在諸多影響定位之干擾源中,頻段內之干擾的危害是較嚴重的。故本文針對此一頻段內之干擾進行分析並研擬因應之方案。研究藉由訊號處理以建立具體之GPS抗干擾技術,進而改善GPS系統在干擾環境下之定位品質。其中窄頻干擾會降低接收器中C/No值並導致定位誤差漸增,虛擬衛星干擾則對於接收衛星本身訊號結構進行破壞,在衛星數少於四顆時則無法進行定位。其干擾抑制結果顯示以頻域處理的方式及時域處理中遞迴式類神經網路為架構的適應性估測器針對自我迴歸式及持續性弦波干擾有著較佳的訊號雜訊比改善,在硬體實現成本考量上,採取較為低階的時域濾波器可節省運算時間。另在虛擬衛星干擾部分,我們採取干擾訊號重建的方式將虛擬衛星摒除,其結果顯示可增加其他衛星的訊號雜訊比並擷取之。最後採取塊狀訊號擷取方式來產生較佳的擷取結果。
  The Global Positioning System (GPS) for navigation is designed to serve both military and civilian applications. However, Pseudolite jamming and narrowband interference can seriously degrade performance of GPS system appreciably. Thus, the most important use of GPS system is that of interference suppression techniques. This paper gives an overview of the techniques of interference suppression to GPS such as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique, Nonlinear Adaptive Transversal Filter (NATF), Recursive Least Square (RLS) adaptive filtering, Feedforward Back-propagation Neural Network (FBNN) and Elman Recurrent Neural Network (ERNN)., etc. The key issue in the frequency domain and time domain approach is to find an appropriate architecture that can suppress the narrowband interference and give the best results. We develop a software algorithm that removes the pseudolite interference and successfully acquisition of the weak GPS signals. Finally, analytical and hardware simulation results obtained in the presence of single-tone and pseudolite interference sources are presented.
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 ...........................................1
1.2 研究範圍與假設 .........................................2
1.3 相關文獻回顧 ................................................ 2
1.4 研究方法與步驟 .............................................3
1.5 論文組織.................................................4

第2章 GPS干擾抑制系統架構 6
2.1 全球定位系統接收器 .......................................6
2.1.1 GPS衛星訊號 ............................................6
2.1.2 GPS電碼特性 .........................................7
2.1.3 GPS接收器系統結構 .................................... 10
2.1.4 GPS訊號擷取與追蹤 .....................................12
2.2 射頻訊號架構之規劃設計理論 ....................................13
2.2.1 射頻/中頻數位轉換設計原理 ...................13
2.2.2 數位中頻取樣轉換原理 ...............................15
2.2.3 整體架構之規劃 .................................16
2.3 實驗系統軟硬體架構 .....................................17
2.3.1 主動式天線及可調式增益放大器 ...........17
2.3.2 NI PXI-1000B工業電腦 .......................18
2.3.3 NI PXI-5660 射頻訊號分析儀 ..................19
2.3.4 GPS NovAtel接收器 ..........................22
2.3.5 GPS干擾源產生器 ..........................23
2.3.6 實驗模擬軟體 ................................. 24
2.4 干擾抑制系統運作流程規劃 ..............................24
2.5 本章小結 .................................................25

第3章 GPS頻段內干擾分析與抑制技術 27
3.1 干擾環境下GPS訊號結構 ...................................27
3.2 干擾訊號種類及特性 ......................................29
3.2.1 干擾訊號強度分析 .................................29
3.2.2 干擾種類影響分析 .................................32
3.2.3 干擾訊號數學模型 ...............................34
3.2.4 模擬結果 .......................................... 35
3.3 電碼相關前(Pre-correlation)干擾抑制技術 ..............36
3.3.1 適應性天線技術 ............................... 36
3.3.2 類比數位轉換(ADC)技術 ...................38
3.3.3 頻域濾波器 ...............................38
3.3.4 時域濾波器 ..............................41
3.3.5 非線性適應性濾波器 .......................43
3.3.6 前饋式倒傳遞類神經網路 .................45
3.3.7 遞迴式類神經網路 .................47
3.4 電碼相關後(Post-correlation)干擾抑制技術 ..........50
3.4.1 電碼搜尋法 ........................................50
3.4.2 快速傅立葉轉換搜尋法 ......................52
3.4.3 虛擬衛星干擾抑制技術 ......................55
3.5 模擬結果 .................................................56
3.5.1 ADC轉換模擬 ............................56
3.5.2 電碼相關前訊號處理模擬 ...................58
3.6 本章小結 ...............................................70

第4章 實驗結果 73
4.1 虛擬衛星訊號及持續性弦波訊號測試 ..............73
4.2 干擾源對GPS接收器影響 ...................74
4.2.1 實驗流程 ..............................74
4.2.2 軟體程式規劃 ...............................78
4.2.3 結果分析 .........................................79
4.3 干擾抑制效果實驗 ...............................83
4.3.1 實驗流程 ..............................83
4.3.2 結果分析 ...................................84
4.4 本章小結 .................................................95

第5章 結論與未來工作 96
5.1 結論 .......................................96
5.2 未來工作 .......................................97
參考文獻 ............................................99
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