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研究生:李榮華
研究生(外文):Rong-Hwa Lee
論文名稱:嵌入式即時系統之能源管理機制
論文名稱(外文):An Energy Management Scheme for Embedded Real-Time Systems
指導教授:陳敬陳敬引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jing Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:40
中文關鍵詞:嵌入式即時系統
外文關鍵詞:embedded systemRealtime System
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  能源消耗是嵌入式及行動式系統設計的重要考量,軟體控制功率管理是一個比硬體控制更有彈性的能源管理方法,然而以往的研究均只針對處理器或只針對週邊裝置作能源管理之研究,使得整個系統的功率消耗未被全盤考量。本論文提出一可以同時降低處理器及週邊裝置之功率消耗的排程演算法,其特點為根據系統的利用率來決定處理器之速度,使系統利用率低的時候可以用較低功率的運算速度節省能源的消耗,另一方面也去偵測週邊裝置的使用狀況,在不使用週邊裝置時,儘可能地關閉週邊裝置的電源或降低其電源消耗。此排程演算法可以很容易實作於即時作業系統中,使得系統電源不僅可以有效地運用,系統內的工作亦可以在設定之執行期限內執行完畢。本論文也以eCOS的架構為例說明系統如何建立功率管理介面及框架,使得設計功率管理時,可以有一致性的介面。
  Energy consumption is an important design issue of embedded systems and portable devices. In achieving effective power management, software- controlled approach is usually more flexible than hardware-controlled approach. However, past researches only focused on the power management of either processor or device; power consumption of the whole system is not considered at all. This thesis presents a scheduling algorithm which takes into account the power consumption of both processor and devices. It has the feature of deciding speed of processor according to the system utilization such that it can use low power computing speed to reduce power consumption when system utilization is low. On the other hand, it also detects the usage of devices; it will shutdown the power of devices when device is idle. This scheduling algorithm can be implemented easily in real time operating system, such that power is comsumed more efficiently while tasks in the system can meet their deadline requirements. We also use the architecture of eCos to demonstrate how to build a power management interface and framework, such that it has the same interfaces when designing power management functionality.
目 錄

第一章 簡 介 1
1.1 即時嵌入式系統 1
1.2 研究動機與背景 1
1.3 論文組織 2
第二章 系統架構 4
2.1 即時系統模型 4
2.2 功率模型 6
2.2.1 動態電壓調整 6
2.2.2 動態功率管理 7
第三章 相關研究 10
3.1 動態電壓調整 10
3.2 動態功率管理 12
3.3 預先喚醒電源管理 13
第四章 作業系統層架構 14
4.1 作業系統直接控制及功率管理 14
4.2 eCOS系統架構 15
4.3 eCOS功率管理支援 17
4.3.1 eCOS功率管理套件 17
4.3.2 功率控制器 18
4.3.3 功率管理應用程式介面 18
4.4 功率控制器實作 21
4.4.1 TMS320DM270簡介 21
4.4.2 TMS320DM270之USB設備功率控制器實作 22
第五章 功率導向排程器 25
5.1 結合DVS和DPM之演算法 25
5.2 向前偵測機制 28
5.3 可預先喚醒週邊排程器 30
第六章 效能評估 33
6.1 模擬環境 33
6.2 結果 34
第七章 結論與展望 37
7-1 結論 37
7-2 未來發展 37
參考文獻 39
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[9]G. Wei and M. Horowitz, “A low power switching power supply for self-clocked systems,”in Int. Symp. Low Power Electronics and Design, Aug. 1996, pp. 313-317.
[10]http://focus.ti.com/docs/apps/catalog/general/applications.jhtml?templateId=5085&path=templatedata/cm/general/data/vidimg_pia_dm270.
[11]http://sources.redhat.com/ecos/.
[12]http://www.intel.com/design/pca/prodbref/253820.htm.
[13]http://www.microsoft.com/hwdev/onnow.
[14]http://www.microsoft.com/windows/embedded/default.asp.
[15]http://www.palm.com/us/.
[16]L. Benini, A. Bogliolo, G. A. Paleologo, and G. De Micheli, “Policy optimization for dynamic power management,” IEEE Trans. Computer-Aided Design, June, 1999, pp. 813 -833.
[17]Osman S. Unsal and Israel Koren, “System-Level power-aware design techniques in real-time system,” proceedings of the IEEE, July, 2003, pp. 1055 - 1069.
[18]Padmanabhan Pillai and Kang G. Shin, “Real-Time Dynamic Voltage Scaling for Low-Power Embedded Operating Systems,” in Proc. of 18th Symposium on Operating Systems Principles, Banff, Canada, March. 2001, pp. 273-279.
[19]G. Wei and M. Horowitz, “A low power switching power supply for self-clocked systems,”in Int. Symp. Low Power Electronics and Design, Aug. 1996, pp. 313-317.
[20]Sha, L., R. Rajkumar, and J. P. Lehoczky, “Priority Inheritance Protocols: An Approach to Real-Time Synchronization,” IEEE Trans. on Computers, 1990, pp. 1175-1185.
[21]T. Simunic, L. Benini, and GD Micheli, “Event-driven power management,” in International Symposium on System Synthesis, July, 1999, pp. 840-857.
[22]Vishnu Swaminathan, Charles B. Schweizer, Krishnendu Chakrabarty, Amil A. Patel “Experiences in Implementing an Energy-Driven Task Scheduler in RT- Linux,” IEEE Real Time Technology and Applications Symposium, Sept. 2002, pp. 229-238.
[23]Vishnu Swaminathan and Krishnendu Chakrabarty, “Energy-conscious, deterministic I/O device scheduling in hard real-time systems, “ IEEE Tran. Computer-Aided-Design of integrated circuits and systems, July 2003, pp. 847 - 858.
[24]Y.Shin, H. Kawaguchi, T. Sakurai, “Cooperative voltage scaling (CVS) between OS and applications for low-power real-time systems”, IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, May, 2001, pp. 553-556.
[25]Yung-Hsiang Lu and Luca Benini, “Power-Aware Operating Systems for Interactive Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems , April, 2002, pp. 119-134.
[26]Y.-H. Lu, L. Benini, and G. De Micheli, “Requester-aware power reduction,” in Proc. Int. Symp. Syst. Synthesis, Madrid, Spain, Sept, 2000, pp. 18-23.
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