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研究生:莊智淵
研究生(外文):Chih-Yuan Chuang
論文名稱:生命週期評估應用於產品概念設計階段之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Applying Life Cycle Assessment to Conceptual Product Design
指導教授:陳家豪陳家豪引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jahau Lewis Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:生命週期評估概念設計
外文關鍵詞:LCAconceptual design
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:23
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  • 下載下載:132
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
摘要
  完整之生命週期評估需耗費大量時間、物力與財力,現有之生命週期評估方法,大都在產品已完成設計階段,量產上市之後,對其做完整之生命週期評估,再發現其對環境之衝擊之大小,以此結果來評斷產品可修正之方向。但由於產品已於量產階段,所可修改之幅度不大,但如果能於產品尚於設計階段便能得知其對環境影響之多寡,便能於產品尚未進入生產階段,來進行修正,能夠做大幅度的調整。

  雖然已有些簡化生命週期評估方法被提出於概念設計階段使用,但這些方法存在著環境衝擊評估值不夠準確、所需要之資料過於龐大、所用之方法操作過於複雜等問題。

  本文所提出之改良方法為利用類神經網路,針對單一產品與單一生命週期環境衝擊評估值,來進行類神經網路架構之訓練,利用現有產品資料,選定我們要針對之特定環境衝擊評估項目,根據其產品性質去選取類神經網路訓練特徵,再規範特徵範圍對應類神經訓練代碼,類神經網路訓練完成經驗證其誤差後,確認其準確度,便完成類神經網路的架構。再來對於產品生命週期環境衝擊評估資料過少者,無法用於上述方法,提供現有以模式為基礎之定性評估資訊案例庫,針對此產品位於生命週期各階段對環境之影響多寡,提供資訊以供參考,用於概念設計階段,設計新產品時改善對環境之衝擊參考之依據。

  此方法能夠有效的提高環境衝擊評估值的正確性,亦能降低所需資料的數量,於方法架構方面也能降低其複雜性,在實際應用方面亦能擺脫產品於概念設計階段,各項數據資料之不確定,無法進行確切評估之問題。對於數據資料過少之產品,無法使用類神經網路來訓練,亦能提供針對產品各生命週期階段之環境衝擊參考數據。
Abstract

  Traditional Life-cycle assessment(LCA) methods need lots of times and resources for numerical calculation. In case we can find the environmental impacts of products on the stage of conceptual design, a large range of products’ specifications could be changed to improve the eco-properties of products. Some simple LCA methods are developed to be executed on the early design stage. However, there are some defects such as needing lots of data, lacking for precise estimated value and the complex operating processes etc. An improved method is proposed to reform the shortcomings that deal with only single product and single impact category. By using the artificial neural networks to train the existent LCA data, one can calculate the environmental impacts of products at the conceptual design phase. The new method proposes the idea of defining characteristic range instead of using precise number in input value of artificial neural networks to response the shortage of detail product information. As for the problem of few data of existent product, the designer can consult the database of pattern-based qualitative LCA to get the environmental impact map. According to the environmental impact map the design engineer can check which life stage of products will make the highest influence of environment. This method can increase the accuracy of impact results, reduce the operating difficulties, lessen the data requirement and overcome the problem of no detail product specification.
目錄
頁次
摘要..............................................i
英文摘要........................................iii
誌謝.............................................iv
目錄..............................................v
表目錄...........................................ix
圖目錄...........................................xi
第一章 緒論......................................1
1-1 前言..........................................1
1-2 文獻回顧......................................2
1-3 研究目的......................................5
1-4 論文架構......................................6
第二章 生命週期評估方法..........................8
2-1 生命週期評估..................................8
2-1-1 目標和範疇界定(Goal and Scope Definition)...9
2-1-2 生命週期盤查分析(Life Cycle Inventory,
LCI).......................................10
2-1-3 生命週期衝擊評估(Life Cycle Impact
Assessment, LCIA)..........................10
2-1-4 生命週期闡釋(Interpretation)...............12
2-2 各種簡化生命週期評估方法.....................12
2-2-1 審查式生命週期評估方法(Screening LCA)......12
2-2-2 簡約式生命週期評估方法(Simplifying or
Streamlined LCA)...........................13
2-2-3 結合審查式與簡約式生命週期評估方法
(Screening and Streamlined Combine
LCA).......................................15
2-2-4 多重審查式生命週期評估方法(Iteration
Screening LCA, IS-LCA).....................16
2-2-5 矩陣式簡約生命週期評估方法(Streamlined LCA
Matrix Approaches).........................18
第三章 應用於概念設計階段之生命週期評估方法.....27
3-1 利用類神經網路之簡易生命週期評估方法.........27
3-1-1 類神經網路.................................28
3-1-2 倒傳遞類神經網路...........................35
3-1-3 代理學習生命週期評估模式(Learning Surrogate
LCA Model).................................39
3-1-4 應用於分類產品之近似生命週期評估方法
(Approximate LCA of Classified Products)...45
3-1-5 結合案例庫搜尋與類神經網路之簡化生命週期
評估模式...................................54
3-2 以模式為基礎之定性生命週期評估方法...........57
3-3 利用反應曲面法所建立之簡化生命週期評估模式...59
第四章 概念設計階段之改良簡化生命週期評估方法...62
4-1 利用類神經網路架構於概念設計階段生命週期環境
衝擊評估方法.................................63
4-2 產品回用之概念...............................68
4-3 模式為基礎之定性生命週期評估方法.............69
4-4 模式為基礎之評估案例庫之建立.................71
4-5 結合兩種模式之評估方法.......................72
第五章 實例應用.................................74
5-1 電腦滑鼠.....................................74
5-2 即可拍相機(One-Time-Use Camera)..............80
5-3 模式為基礎之評估案例庫.......................89
第六章 結論與建議...............................99
6-1 結論.........................................99
6-2 建議........................................100
參考文獻........................................102
附錄A 倒傳遞類神經網路訓練檔與測試檔...........107
A-1 類神經網路輸入檔案說明.................107
A-2 電腦滑鼠之類神經網路訓練檔與測試檔.....107
A-3 即可拍相機之類神經網路訓練檔與測試檔...108
自述............................................113
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