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研究生:何玉琦
研究生(外文):Yu-Ki He
論文名稱:應用嗅覺與儀器方法分析水中臭味之研究
指導教授:林財富林財富引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsair-Fuh Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:117
中文關鍵詞:嗅覺氣相層析儀藻味固相微萃取法
外文關鍵詞:Algae odor1-Octen-3-olSolid phase microextraction (SPME)Sensory GCBeta ionone
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  本研究結合嗅覺及儀器方法分析水中臭味物質,前者以嗅覺氣相層析儀(Sensory GC)為主來分析臭味物質之氣味及強度,後者則以固相微萃取法(Solid-phase microextraction, SPME)配合氣相層析質譜儀(GC/MS)分析臭味物質之種類及濃度。研究中發現Sensory GC對霉味之2-MIB及土味之Geosmin兩種物質其聞測閾值為1.4 ng/L及0.25 ng/L,與傳統嗅覺層次分析法(Flavor Profile Analysis, FPA)相比,其霉味閾值降低了7倍,而土味閾值降低了20倍。

  在SPME濃縮前處理,選用吸附極性物質之纖維65μm PDMS/DVB,可以有效萃取到澄清湖及曾文水庫水所產生藻粉中之臭味物質,包括造成腥、草味的heptanal及藻味之主要成份1-octen-3-ol、2,5-octadione、1-hepten-3-ol和草味之主要成份trans,cis,2,4-decadienal與beta ionone。針對不同水源原水測試結果顯示1-octen-3-ol及2,5-octadione仍是造成藻味之主要物質,beta ionone 為造成香、草味之物質,且在不含藻的水中只有少量的beta ionone被偵測到,顯示大部份的藻味及草味物質均存在於藻體內。

  研究中並將此分析技術應用至有臭味問題之焚化爐底灰,存有濃烈刺鼻味及石灰味之底灰,經研究後發現灰渣中刺鼻味可能是由pyridine所造成,而造成石灰味物質因管柱分離效果不佳,導致波鋒未完整分離而無法獲知其臭味物質。
  Drinking water quality in southern Taiwan receives complains from customers for a long time for its unpleasant odors. Earthy/musty and fishy odors were the two major odor groups in many drinking water sources. An algal metabolite, 2-MIB, is known to be the predominated musty odor compound in most of the surface drinking water sources in Taiwan. Unlike that for the musty odor, the chemicals responsible for the fishy odor are not identified. In this study, the responsible chemicals for fishy odor were investigated using both sensory and instrumental analysis methods. A solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique was employed to concentrate the odorants from dry algae powder, source water, or algae-laden water. A gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a mass spectrometer detector (MSD) and an olfactory port in parallel was used to determine both the chemicals and their corresponding odor types trapped in the SPME fibers.

  Experimental results of GC-olfactory port (sensory GC) revealed that the odor threshold concentrations (OTCs) of two earthy/musty odor compounds, 2-MIB and geosmin, are much lower (1/10 to 1/30) than that from another conventional method, flavor profile analysis (FPA). Two major odors, algae and grassy, were identified from the SGC analysis of algae powder dried from two reservoir waters. Although fishy odor was not identified in the samples, the fishy odor was suspected as a combination of algae and grassy odor. The compounds responsible for algae odor includes 1-octen-3-ol, 2,5-octadione, and 1-hepten-3-ol, and those for grassy odor includes trans-cis,2,4-decadienal and beta ionone. Analysis of four source waters reflects that 1-octen-3-ol and 2,5-octadione are still the major algae-relevant compounds, and beta ionone is one of the compounds causing grassy odor. The algae and grassy compounds identified were found to present mostly within algae cell, and only trace amount of beta ionone was observed in aqueous phase. This technique was also applied to identify the pungent and lime odors present in the bottom of a municipal solid waste incinerator. The pungent odor may be attributed to pyridine, while the lime odor was not identified due to detection limit of mass spectrometer.
摘要 I
英文摘要 III
誌謝 V
目 錄 VI
表目錄 X
圖目錄 XII

第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究緣起 1
1-2 研究目的 2

第二章 文獻回顧 4
2-1 自來水中的臭味問題 4
2-2 水中臭味物質的分析方法 10
2-2-1 樣品濃縮方法 12
2-2-1-1封閉式迴路氣提法(CLSA) 12
2-2-2-2蒸氣蒸餾法(SDE) 14
2-2-2-3吹捕濃縮法 (purge and trap) 16
2-2-1-4固相微萃取法(SPME) 17
2-2-1-4-1 SPME的採樣方法 17
2-2-1-4-2不同的披覆(coating)材質及纖維選擇 20
2-2-1-4-3影響SPME萃取的因素 21
2-2-2感覺分析法 26
2-2-2-1初嗅數法(TON) 27
2-2-2-2 嗅覺層次分析法(FPA) 28
2-2-2-3 嗅覺氣相層析儀(sensory GC) 29
2-3 國外魚腥味物質之相關研究 32
2-3-1 魚腥味物質形成之原因 32
2-3-2 可能造成魚腥味的物質 36

第三章 實驗方法與設備 39
3-1固相微萃取法(SPME) 39
3-1-1實驗試劑 39
3-1-2實驗設備 39
3-1-3實驗方法 40
3-2嗅覺氣相層析儀(Sensory GC) 42
3-2-1 實驗設備 42
3-2-2 實驗方法 42
3-3 嗅覺層次分析法(FPA) 45
3-3-1 訓練課程 46
3-4 藻粉及藻液配製方法 49
3-4-1 藻粉配製及實驗方法 49
3-4-2 藻液採集及實驗方法 49
3-5原水臭味分析方法 50
3-5-1 金門水樣分析方法 50
3-5-2 澄清湖水樣分析方法 52

第四章 結果與討論 54
4-1嗅覺氣相層析儀(Sensory gc)條件測試 54
4-1-1 聞測杯與質譜儀出流時間測試 54
4-1-2 霉味物質(2-MIB)及土味物質(Geosmin)之閾值 55
4-2 藻粉之嗅覺與儀器分析結果 59
4-2-1 澄清湖藻粉分析結果 59
4-2-2 曾文藻粉分析結果 62
4-3 金門水樣分析結果 64
4-3-1 金門水廠藻液分析 64
4-3-2 產臭物質在藻體及原水中之關係 81
4-4 澄清湖水樣分析結果 89
4-4-1 澄清湖藻液分析結果 89
4-5 焚化爐灰渣分析結果 98

第五章 結論與建 107
5-1 結論 107
5-2 建議 108

參考文獻 109
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