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研究生:陳裕政
研究生(外文):Yu-Cheng Chen
論文名稱:航空器引擎PAHs及VOCs排放特徵與維修及測試期間勞工暴露評估
論文名稱(外文):Characteristic of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from Aircraft Emission and Exposure Assessment for Workers Period Engine Maintenance and Testing
指導教授:蔡朋枝蔡朋枝引用關係
指導教授(外文):Perng-Jy Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:105
中文關鍵詞:引擎測試航空器暴露評估排放特徵揮發性有機物多環芳香烴碳氫化合物
外文關鍵詞:PAHsaircraft maintenance and testingVOCsemission characteristic
相關次數:
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  本研究主要針對直升機航空器引擎測試前(含上架及準備)及測試後(含測試及下架)作業期間經引擎排放及油氣逸散之多環芳香烴碳氫化合物(Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs)及揮發性有機物(Volatile Organic Compounds, VOCs)進行作業環境暴露評估與航空器尾氣排放特徵之研究,以瞭解現場作業勞工之暴露風險及推估PAHs與VOCs之排放係數與排放量。結果顯示測試後工廠內之Total-PAHs濃度(24027 ng/m3)遠高於測試前(4635 ng/m3),勞工PAHs暴露致肺癌風險值為1.98×10-3~4.18×10-3;Total-VOCs濃度在測試前(121 μg/m3)反而高於測試後濃度(88.9 μg/m3),若以Benzene計算其致癌風險,勞工致癌風險值為5.76×10-6~1.12×10-5。現場粒徑分佈顯示,測試前、後皆以fine particle(<2.5 μm)為主要粒徑組成,吸入性、胸腔性及呼吸性粉塵PAHs的濃度都是測試後高於測試前。煙道採樣結果顯示航空器引擎其平均Total-PAHs排放濃度為843 μg/m3;各測試模式Total-EFPAH排放係數(燃燒每公升燃油PAHs排放量)依序分別為: GI(Ground Idle)> IGV(Inlet Guide Vane)>BBC(Beed Band Check)> TO(Take Off)>FI(Flight Idle),其組成主要以低環數分子量PAHs為組成,總PAHs起降循環排放係數為21.8(g/LTO),BaP起降循環排放係數為42.5(mg/LTO)。航空器引擎其平均Total-VOCs濃度為37.6 mg/m3,Total-EFVOC 排放係數依序分別為: BBC>FI>GI>TO>IGV,其VOCs起降循環排放係數為873(g/LTO)。航空器測試工廠在測試後有高濃度的氣相PAHs產生,勞工在測試時應盡量待在控制室,若需要於現場進行航空器檢修工作時應配戴防毒面具,且航空器下架時需進行適當通風,移除殘留於現場之PAHs。平常無測試工作時也須保持現場環境整潔避免燃油累積並保持室內良好通風。本研究之航空器其BaP起降循環排放係數遠高於歐盟規範值1.24(mg/LTO),因此,直升機對於機場或其他起降地點之污染應不容忽視。
  The objectives of this study were set out to assess the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in workplace, and characterize engine exhaust period aircraft maintenance and testing. Then we assessed exposure risk for worker and estimated emission factors from exhaust of UH-1H aircraft turboshaft engine. On the part of environment monitoring, we collected PAHs, VOCs and aerosol size segregation samples from the engine testing room during both stages of engine of pre-testing and post-testing, respectively. On the part of aircraft emission assessment, we collected stack flue gas samples through isokinetic sampling during the 5 modes of GI(Ground Idle), FI(Flight Idle), BBC(Beed Band Check), IGV(Inlet Guide Vane), and TO(Take Off), respectively. We found that significant difference of total PAHs levels between pre-testing stage (4635 ng/m3) and post-testing stage (24027 ng/m3) in testing engine room, but total VOCs levels are higher in pre-testing stage (121 μg/m3) than in testing stage (89.9 μg/m3). The estimated lung cancer risk range caused by PAHs for aircraft maintenance workers period work were 1.98×10-3 ~4.18×10-3. The range of risk caused by Benzene was 5.76×10-6~1.12×10-5. The result of size distribution showed that particles were dominated by the fine fraction at both pre- and post-testing stage. Stack sampling results revealed that the average PAHs concentration was 843(μg/m3)at 5 testing modes. The PAHs emission factor of aircraft of turboshaft engine was higher than gasoline engine. Total emission factors of total-PAHs and BaP as the landing and takeoff(LTO)cycle were 21.8(g/LTO)and 42.5(mg/LTO), respectively. PAHs level of gas phase was the major composition because high temperature resulted in that particle was burned down what it followed raising of the rotation rate. Emission factor of total-VOCs as the LTO cycle were 873(g/LTO).
第一章 前言……………………………………………1
1-1. 研究背景………………………………………………1
1-2. 研究目的………………………………………………2

第二章 文獻回顧……………………………………………3
2-1. 航空器介紹……………………………………………3
2-1-1. 渦輪發動機的沿革…………………………………3
2-1-2. 渦輪發動機的原理…………………………………3
2-2. 航空燃油回顧…………………………………………6
2-3. 航空器PAHs排放係數規範……………………………6
2-4. PAHs暴露研究回顧……………………………………7
2-5. PAHs特性……………………………………………8
2-6. PAHs之形成機制……………………………………9
2-7. PAHs健康危害………………………………………11
2-8. PAHs之致癌風險評估………………………………12
2-9. VOCs暴露研究回顧與特性…………………………13
2-10. 航空器VOCs排放係數規範…………………………14
2-11. VOCs之健康危害……………………………………14
2-12. VOCs之致癌風險評估………………………………16

第三章 研究方法及設備……………………………………31
3-1. 研究架構………………………………………………31
3-2. 航空器相關資料及參數………………………………33
3-3. 採樣方法………………………………………………33
3-3-1. PAHs及VOCs區域採樣……………………………33
3-3-2. 氣膠粒徑分佈採樣…………………………………35
3-3-3. 煙道廢氣PAHs採樣…………………………………36
3-3-4. 煙道PAHs採樣器抽氣體積計算與測漏……………38
3-3-5. 煙道廢氣VOCs採樣…………………………………42
3-4. 分析方法………………………………………………43
3-4-1. PAHs之分析方法……………………………………43
3-4-2. VOCs之分析方法……………………………………44

第四章 研究品質控制與資料處理…………………………51
4-1. PAHs之採樣分析及分析之品質控制…………………51
4-1-1. 採樣品質控制………………………………………51
4-2. VOCs之採樣及分析之品質控制………………………53
4-2-1. 採樣品質控制………………………………………53
4-2-2. 分析之品質控制……………………………………54
4-3. 資料處理………………………………………………55
4-3-1. 現場環境及煙道廢氣PAHs組成特徵………………55
4-3-2. PAHs致癌風險評估…………………………………55
4-3-3. 航空器引擎PAHs排放係數推估……………………56
4-3-4. 現場環境及煙道廢氣VOCs組成特徵………………56
4-3-5. VOCs致癌風險評估…………………………………56
4-3-6. 航空器引擎VOCs排放係數推估……………………57
4-3-7. 航空器引擎LTO循環排放係數推估………………57
4-4. 環境氣膠粒徑分佈……………………………………58
4-4-1. 與健康相關之氣膠…………………………………58
4-4-2. 不同呼吸區域PAHs暴露量之推估…………………59

第五章 結果與討論…………………………………………70
5-1. 測試工廠不同作業型態之PAHs暴露特徵……………70
5-2. PAHs致肺癌之健康風險評估…………………………72
5-3. 測試工廠不同作業型態之VOCs暴露特徵……………72
5-4. VOCs致肺癌之健康風險評估…………………………73
5-5. 現場不同作業型態環境氣膠與總PAHs粒徑分佈情形74
5-6. 航空器引擎PAHs之排放特徵…………………………74
5-7. 航空器引擎PAHs之排放係數推估……………………75
5-8. 航空器引擎VOCs之排放特徵…………………………77
5-9. 航空器引擎VOCs之排放係數推估……………………77

第六章 結論與建議…………………………………………99
6-1. 結論……………………………………………………99
6-2. 建議……………………………………………………99

第七章 參考文獻…………………………………………100
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