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研究生:許友耕
研究生(外文):Yeou-Geng Hsu
論文名稱:工業技術研究院組織變革管理的研究
論文名稱(外文):A Critical Analysis of ITRI''s Organizational Change Management
指導教授:徐作聖徐作聖引用關係
指導教授(外文):Joseph Z. Shyu
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:工業工程與管理系
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:199
中文關鍵詞:組織變革變革管理工業技術研究院認知評估研發計劃評選政策工具模糊多準則決策組織自我認定
外文關鍵詞:organizational changechange managementITRIcognitive appraisalproject selectionpolicy toolfuzzy multiple criteria decision makingorganizational identity
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本論文係探討工業技術研究院自1995年至2002年的組織變革管理。本研究採取跨組織層次的方式,就組織與環境、個人與組織兩種層次的互動進行探討,同時運用多典範研究方法,包括使用模糊多準則評估的處方性研究、與Lazarus 的壓力模型的描述性研究方法,針對工研院組織變革中的四項重要管理課題進行研究。
本論文運用模糊多準則評估方法於兩項研究:「政府資助的前瞻型研發計劃的評選」、與「政策工具對新興生技公司形成的評估」,前者證實本研究所提出的方法可以有效的解決前瞻型研發計劃評選的問題,也就是無法兼顧評審的專業技術能力與產官學各界不同期望的兩難問題。後者則從使用者的角度,評估我國的政策工具對於新興生技公司的形成的貢獻,結果顯示大型研究機構在產業創新系統中,角色最為重要且越趨複雜。
另外兩項研究則運用 Lazarus 的壓力模型,在「管理者認知與組織自我認定」的研究中,透過對經營團隊所認知的壓力、與其所採行的變革策略進行比對,了解管理者如何認知環境的變化,進而形成變革策略,同時發現組織自我認定在工研院的組織變革中,不僅影響到變革策略形成,也影響到策略的執行方式。在「員工如何回應組織變革」的研究中,本文提出一個「認知-評估-因應」的模型,包含由建設性/破壞性與積極/消極兩個面向,所建構的四類員工反應模式,及影響初級評估的「對高階主管的信任」、與「組織公正性」,影響次級評估的「賦權授能」、與「工作重設計」的四個因素,透過結構模式(SEM)的驗證,支持本研究所提的模型及部分假說。該模型可以解釋員工在組織變革中,如何透過對於「對高階主管的信任」、與「賦權授能」的認知,產生不同的反應。本文最後說明研究的貢獻與管理意涵,及未來進一步研究的課題。
This dissertation reports on a critical analysis for the understanding of organizational change management of a public research institute, ITRI, during 1995-2002. By adopting cross-level approaches (organizational, and individual level) and the multiple paradigms (prescriptive approach with fuzzy multiple criteria evaluation and descriptive with cognitive appraisal analysis), four managerial studies of theoretical and practical importance are reported.
The fuzzy multiple criteria approach is applied to two studies, namely, the selection of frontier technology R&D projects, and the evaluation of policy tools toward the formation of new biotechnology firms. Study I demonstrates that this approach is effectively in solving the disparity problem between advanced knowledge required for evaluation and expectancy from various interest groups. Study Ⅱ examines the relative effectiveness of policy tools for the development of venture firms of biotechnology, which demonstrates that ITRI not only plays the role as a crucial source of technology and human capital, but also an important collaborator in the industrial innovation system.
The Lazarus’s stress-based theory is applied for the other two studies. In Study Ⅲ, it was found that the managerial cognition of the top management team, which includes cognitive appraisal and perception of organizational identity, plays a crucial role in the organization-environment relationship, and bridges the gap between environmental stressors and organizational actions involving strategic change. Using structural equation modeling, Study Ⅳ provides support for the proposed “stress--appraisal-coping” model and partial support for hypothesized propositions. The proposed model provides an initial explanation for how individual beliefs, such as trust and empowerment, shape survivor’s responses, thus providing avenues for future research on employee responses to organizational change. Further research issues and contributions of the dissertation both in theory and practice are also discussed.
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………….i
Table of Contents . iii
Table of Exhibits ..vi
Acknowledgements viii
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Purpose of the Research 2
1.3 Research Process and Framework 4
Chapter 2: Organizational Change of Industrial Technology Research Institute
2.1 Case Description 10
2.1.1 The Transformation of ITRI 10
2.1.2 Major Interventions for ITRI’s Transformations 12
2.2 Literature Background 14
2.2.1 Organizational Change 14
2.2.2 Change management 17
2.3 The Design and the Implementation of Shared Services Center 20
2.3.1 Shared Services in ITRI 21
2.3.2 Achievements of ASC 25
2.4 The Implementation of BPR and IT Programs in ITRI 25
2.4.1 The Roadmap of Implementation 26
2.4.2 The Focus and the Approach of ITRI’s BPR 28
Chapter 3: Methodology
3.1 Fuzzy Multiple Criteria Decision Making Method 33
3.2 Cognitive Appraisal Method 37
3.3 Structural Equation Model 38
Chapter 4: Study Ⅰ- Selection of Frontier Technology Projects
4.1 Problems in Selecting Frontier Technology R&D Projects 41
4.2 Literature Backgrounds on R&D Project Selection. 43
4.3 Evaluating the Hierarchy System for R&D Project Selection 44
4.3.1 Evaluating Hierarchy Model and its Criteria .45
4.3.2 Weights of Evaluation Criteria/Objectives and Their Implications 48
4.3.3 Illustrative Examples 51
4.4.4 Feasibility of Application 55
4.4 Concluding Remarks .56
Chapter 5: Study Ⅱ - Evaluating Policy Tools toward the Formation of NBFs
5.1 Formation of New Biotechnology Firms 58
5.2 Industrial Innovation of Biotechnology 60
5.2.1 Government Interventions for Industrial Innovation .60
5.2.2 Policy Tools for New Firm Formation in Biotechnology 61
5.2.3 New Biotechnology Firms in Taiwan 62
5.3 An Evaluating Model for the Formation of NBFs 63
5.3.1 Criteria toward Each Aspect of the Formation of NBFs 64
5.3.2 Weights of Criteria for Evaluating the Formation of NBFs 65
5.3.3 Policy Tools for Biotechnology Industry in Taiwan 68
5.4 Evaluation of Policy Tools .69
5.4.1 Contribution of Policy Tool Perceived by the Users'' Group. 71
5.4.2 Results of Interview 74
5.5 Concluding Remarks 75
Chapter 6: Study Ⅲ - Managerial Cognition in Organizational Change
6.1 Cognitive Appraisal and Organizational Identity 78
6.2 The Research Methods 81
6.2.1 Research Procedure .82
6.2.2 Data Analysis .83
6.3 Major Research Findings 84
6.3.1 Relationship between Perceived Stresses and Change Strategies .87
6.3.2 The Role of Organizational Identity 88
6.4 Concluding Remarks .91
Chapter 7: Study Ⅳ - How Employees Respond to an Organizational Change
7.1 A Modeling of Employee Responses 94
7.2 Cognitive Appraisal and Stress Model .97
7.2.1 Factors Shaping Primary Appraisal and Employees’ Responses 98
7.2.2 Factors Shaping Secondary Appraisal and Survivor Responses 100
7.2.3 Proposed Model 102
7.3 The Research Findings 102
7.3.1 Model Fitting and Proposition Testing ..102
7.3.2 Further Modeling 104
7.4 Concluding Remarks 105
Chapter 8: Discussions and Conclusions .108
References 116
Appendix 141
Table of Exhibits
List of Figures
Fig. 1.1 Research Process 6
Fig. 1.2 Research Framework of ITRI’s Change 7
Fig. 2.1 Roadmap in implementing BPR/ERP in ITRI 27
Fig. 2.2 SAP and Related Systems in ITRI 32
Fig. 3.1 Membership Function of the Triangular Fuzzy Number 35
Fig. 4.1 A Hierarchy Model for Frontier Technology R&D Project Selection 46
Fig. 5.1 Evaluating Hierarchy for the Formation of New Biotechnology Firms 64
Fig. 6.1 The Role of Cognition and Identity in Strategic Change 93
Fig. 7.1 Individual Response to Organizational Change 95
Fig. 7.2 Theoretical Framework of Individual Response to Organizational Change 98
Fig. 7.3 Proposed Model for Cognitive Appraisal and Response 102
Fig. 7.4 Model for Cognitive Appraisal and Employee Response in ITRI 104
List of Tables
Table 2.1 Outputs of ITRI 9
Table 2.2 The Foci of ASC’s Transformation 22
Table 2.3 Comparison on Service Design 23
Table 2.4 The Major Interventions in Implementing Share Services in ASC 23
Table 2.5 Contents and Main Foci of ITRI’s BPR 30
Table 2.6 Summary on the BPR and the e-process in ITRI 31
Table 2.7 Comparison of the Information Systems Before and After ERP Introduction 32
Table 4.1 Criteria for Evaluation 47
Table 4.2 The Preference Structure of Each Group toward the Evaluation Objectives 48
Table 4.3 The Preference Structure of Each Group toward the Evaluation Criteria 49
Table 4.4 Performance Scores of MBPP Projects toward each Objective 52
Table 4.5 Performance Scores of SCP Projects toward each Objective 53
Table 4.6 Ranking Comparison of Metallocene based Polymer Program (MBPP) 54
Table 4.7 Ranking Comparison of Specialty Chemicals Program (SCP) 54
Table 5.1 The Preference Structure of the Evaluation Aspects toward the Formation Of
NBFs 67
Table 5.2 The Preference Structure of Each Group toward Criteria .67
Table 5.3 The Performance Scores of Policy Tools toward Each Criterion 72
Table 5.4 Ranks of Each Policy Tool- Contribution Perceived by Bio-firm Group 73
Table 5.5 Ranks of Each Policy Tool- Contribution Perceived by Venture Capitalists .73
Table 6.1 Change Strategies and Major Forms of Intervention .87
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