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研究生:楊國隆
研究生(外文):Kuo-Lung Yang
論文名稱:考慮不同需求情況下缺貨與銷售損失之存貨模式
論文名稱(外文):Study on inventory models with backorders and lost sales under varieties of demands
指導教授:梁馨科梁馨科引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shing-Ko Liang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:工業工程與管理系
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:68
中文關鍵詞:存貨前置時間欠撥後補銷售損失顧客需求缺貨
外文關鍵詞:InventoryLead timeBackorderLost salesCustomers demandShortage
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因為存貨的金額佔有公司營運資金相當高的比例,許多學者致力於發展各種存貨模型,希望能正確地描述存貨系統的行為,制定出適切的存貨補貨策略。然而,在實際的供需市場結構中,經常面臨到許多寡佔市場或單一供應商的情況,由於缺乏競爭者或對特定供應商的偏好,所以當缺貨發生時,顧客只好耐心地等待缺貨的補足。但在很多的狀況下是不允許缺貨的,如替代性很高的商品,或等待欠撥的時間過長,在此情況下發生缺貨,顧客必定轉向其他供應商提供貨物,而造成廠商巨大的銷售損失。
所以廠商必須從時間與成本競爭因子的角度來考量存貨政策,在減少前置時間與適切表現消費者需求行為的前提下,考慮商品缺貨時所產生欠撥與銷售損失的情況,其在快速交貨與降低生產成本之間取得平衡,藉此來提升顧客服務水準與增加企業競爭能力。在本研究以缺貨成本或趕工成本作為成本與時間兩競爭因子之間橋樑,將分別探索需求隨缺貨水準變動、時間變動、需求為常態與未知分配的四種缺貨與銷售損失的存貨模式,其研究重點有三:
(1)探討存貨模型最佳解的存在性與唯一性,並指出原始存貨模型錯誤
地方。
(2)建立求最佳解的準則與演算步驟,以更快速與有效率得出最佳補貨
政策。
(3)本研究將發展定理,並以圖例驗證求解之可行性與精確性。
我們以穩健的數學理論,求出適時、適量及最低成本之補貨政策,期望提供給管理人在做決策時參考之依據。
The amount of a companys inventory takes up a huge proportion of its operational capital. Many scholars have strived to develop a formulated inventory model. They hoped to describe the behavior of the inventory system effectively and establish an optimal order policy. In a realistic market construction some situations, such as an oligopoly market or customer favor to a certain supplier, can cause lack of competitors and substitutes. When there is shortage the customer can simply and patiently wait for stock replenishment. However shortage is not allowed in many situations as, for example, when goods have high substitution or waiting time of backorders is too long. During such shortages the supplier will lose many sales because the customers will change their suppliers.
Firms must consider the inventory policy from the competitive factors of time and cost. Under the situation of lead time reduction and exhibition of consumer demand, it must think about backorders and lost sales. Manager must balance fast delivery and cost reduction to promote the customer service level and competitive abilities. In this dissertation uses shortage cost or crashing cost to bridge the two competitive factors of time and cost. This dissertation will explore demands following backorder levels, following time-varying demands, normal distribution and free distribution, four kinds of inventory model with backorders and lost sales. There are three objectives in this dissertation:
(1) Explore the existence and uniqueness of an inventory model optimal solution and point out questionable points of the original inventory model.
(2) Establish the criteria and an algorithm of optimal solution for deriving the appropriate replenishment policy fast and efficiently.
(3) This dissertation will develop some theorems and utilize some illustrations to test their feasibility and accuracy in the solution process.
We utilize sound mathematics to obtain the optimal replenishment policy for the right time, right quality and lowest cost as references for managers in decision making.
Tables of Contents
Abstract in Chinese………………………………………………………i
Abstract in English………………………………………………………ii
Acknowledgment……………………………………………………………iii
Tables of Contents ………………………………………………………iv
List of Tables ……………………………………………………………vi
List of Figures …………………………………………………………vii
Chapter 1 Introduction……………………………………………1
1.1 Research motivation………………………………………………2
1.2 Research objective ………………………………………………4
1.3 Research scope and assumptions ………………………………6
1.3.1 Inventory model of deterministic demands …………………7
1.3.2 Inventory model of probabilistic demands …………………7
1.4 Research process and organization……………………………8
Chapter 2 Literature review ……………………r………………11
2.1 Deterministic mixed inventory model of demand
variability…………………………………………………………12
2.2 Probabilistic inventory model of demand following
distribution ………………………………………………………16
2.2.1 Literatures about lead time …………………………………17
2.2.2 Related literatures about inventory with backorders and
lost sales …………………………………………………………17
Chapter 3 Inventory model of demand varying from backorder
level ………………………………………………………22
3.1 Review of Padmanabhan and Vrat''s results …………………22
3.2 Improved mathematical analysis ………………………………25
3.3 Numerical examples ………………………………………………28
3.4 Summary ……………………………………………………………29
Chapter 4 Inventory model of demand varying from time …31
4.1 Review of Hariga''s results ……………………………………31
4.2 The growing market ………………………………………………32
4.3 The declining market ……………………………………………34
4.4 Summary………………………………………………………………37
Chapter 5 Inventory model of demand following normal
distribution ……………………………………………38
5.1 Review of Ouyang and Wu''s results……………………………39
5.2 Modification for normal distribution model ………………41
5.3 Numerical example…………………………………………………42
5.4 Summary………………………………………………………………43
Chapter 6 Inventory model of demand following
distribution free ……………………………………44
6.1 Review of Ouyang and Wu''s results……………………………44
6.2 Modification for distribution free model …………………46
6.3 Numerical example…………………………………………………52
6.4 Summary………………………………………………………………53
Chapter 7 Conclusion ………………………………………………54
7.1 Research contributions …………………………………………54
7.2 Research remarks …………………………………………………56
References …………………………………………………………………58
Appendix A …………………………………………………………………64
Appendix B …………………………………………………………………65
作者簡介 ……………………………………………………………………66
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