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研究生:陳菩貞
論文名稱:「取得順從」在小學教育中的運用與研究
論文名稱(外文):The uses of compliance-gaining strategies at classrooms:a study in Taiwan elementary schools
指導教授:葉蓉慧葉蓉慧引用關係李秀珠李秀珠引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:傳播所
學門:傳播學門
學類:一般大眾傳播學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:141
中文關鍵詞:取得順從行為改變技巧深入訪談
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本研究以小學階段師生溝通為主題,探討現今台灣的小學教師在取得學生順從時所使用的策略,並透過深入訪談18位小學教師所得之實例,勾勒出教師使用這些策略的情境因素。
研究結果發現,現今台灣的小學教師最常遇到的學生不順從行為包括作業完成,上課秩序及生活常規三方面。面對學生的不順從行為,教師最常採行的取得順從策略,其中較偏向親社會的策略包括:從教師得到獎賞,從行為中得到延遲獎賞,班規的正式規定,教師以身作則的模範,以及教師的專業(社會知識與邏輯),同儕的助力,正面的期許,利己行為,同理心,暗示,要學生提出保證,以及尋求其他的協助。偏向反社會的策略則有:從教師得到處罰,從其他人得到處罰(同儕的壓力),虧欠父母的罪惡感策略,以及驅逐出境。整體而言,台灣的小學教師使用的取得順從策略多為對學生有正面鼓勵的親社會取向。
教師可能會考量學生的個別差異,而影響策略的使用,例如年齡、性別、個性、身體狀況、個別的學習狀況等,也會體諒學生不同的家庭背景所造成的影響,此外,是否會造成他人的安全問題,家長的態度,師生之間的關係,以及教師覺得學生的不順從是學生或是教師責任的看法,都是影響小學教師策略採行的重要因素。
雖然連續策略在銷售或募款上被證實可以提高人們的順從,但是小學教師卻甚少使用連續性策略,因為教師認為這是欺騙行為,不適合用在教育。至於策略的結合使用,教師在結合雙重策略時,多為軟硬兼施。
目 錄
一、緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 研究架構與流程 3
二、文獻探討 5
2.1 取得順從(Compliance-gaining)的定義 5
2.2 取得順從的連續影響策略 7
2.2.1 跨足入門(Foot-in-the-Door)策略 8
2.2.2 閉門羹(Door-in-the-Face)策略 11
2.2.3 預施小惠(pregiving)策略 14
2.2.4 低空球(Low-Ball)策略 15
2.3 影響策略選擇的因素 16
2.3.1 目標 17
2.3.2 情境 20
2.4 取得順從在不同場域的相關研究 23
2.4.1 醫病關係 24
2.4.2 組織溝通 26
2.5 教學溝通 29
2.5.1 改變行為的技巧(Behavior Alteration Techniques, BATs) 29
2.5.2 影響教師選擇改變行為技巧的因素 32
2.6 研究問題 38
三、 研究方法 41
3.1 訪談對象 41
3.2 訪談問題 42
3.3 資料分析 43
四、研究發現 44
4.1 小學教師最常提出取得順從請求的事項 44
4.1.1 作業完成 44
4.1.2 上課秩序 46
4.1.3 生活常規 47
4.2小學教師最常使用的取得順從策略 49
4.2.1 獎賞與處罰 49
4.2.2 同儕的力量 61
4.2.3 正面的期許 65
4.2.4 利己行為 68
4.2.5 社會知識與邏輯 69
4.2.6 同理心 70
4.2.7 以身作則 71
4.2.8 班規的正式規定 72
4.2.9 罪惡感 72
4.2.10 暗示 73
4.2.11 驅逐出境 74
4.2.12 要學生提出保證 75
4.2.13 尋求其他的協助 76
4.2.14 策略的結合使用 79
4.3 影響小學教師取得順從策略使用的因素 81
4.3.1 學生的年齡 81
4.3.2 學生的性別 83
4.3.3 學生的家庭因素 85
4.3.4 因材施教 88
4.3.5 學生的個性 89
4.3.6 顧慮學生的感受 91
4.3.7 顧慮師生關係 92
4.3.8 顧慮到學生的未來發展 94
4.3.9 是否會傷害到別的同學 95
4.3.10 家長的態度 95
4.3.11 與學生的親密性 97
4.3.12 學生的身體狀況 99
4.3.13 學生的責任 101
4.3.14 教師自省 102
4.4 連續性策略的使用 103
4.5 小結 105
4.5.1 學生的不順從行為 105
4.5.2 取得學生順從的策略 106
4.5.3 教師的考量因素 110
4.5.4 連續策略的使用 120
五、結論與討論 122
5.1 親社會多於反社會策略 124
5.2 獎懲的多樣性與義意 126
5.3 次要目標的影響 128
5.4 連續策略在教學溝通的不適用 130
5.5 研究限制 131
參考文獻 133
附錄一 140
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