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研究生:賴俊宏
研究生(外文):Chun-Hung Lai
論文名稱:國際快遞業飛航排程暨班次表建立之研究
論文名稱(外文):Fleet Routing and Flight Scheduling for International Express package delivery
指導教授:顏上堯顏上堯引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shang-Yao Yan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:土木工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:飛航排程國際快遞班次表軸輻式網路時空網路整數多重貨物網路流動問題
外文關鍵詞:Express package deliveryFleet routingTimetableHub-and-spoke networkMultiple commodity network flow problemTime-space network
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:10
  • 點閱點閱:378
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:82
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
飛航排程及班次表之優劣影響快遞業者之服務品質及營運績效甚鉅,其結果不但攸關業者設備之使用效率與人員之調度,更重要的,將進而直接影響業者之獲利能力、服務水準與市場之競爭能力等。以往飛航排程之研究多著重於客運方面,但航空客運與國際快遞貨運兩者特性並不相同。在客運方面,旅次需求之時間敏感度較高,若轉運次數過多,則易使旅客流失。對國際快遞貨物而言,只要能準時送達,貨主較不在乎貨物被多次轉運。在網路結構方面,國際快遞業多採用軸輻式網路(Hub-and-spoke network),亦有別於一般航空客運的網路型態。另外,由於各場站的作業時效性的考量,快遞業對貨物之運送多存有時窗之限制。在此時窗限制下,各場站及空運中心貨物的作業成本與處理時間兩者存有負相關的關係。因此業者必須考慮各場站之作業成本,安排適當的航班到離時間,以降低其營運成本。近來雖有研究針對航空貨物之特性,發展一短期貨運機隊排程暨班次表規劃模式,但未針對國際快遞特性發展。
因此,本研究針對國際快遞運輸,以業者為立場,考量其相關營運限制,以營運成本最小化為目標,建構一短期國際快遞飛航排程及班次表建立之模式。此模式於未來實務的應用上,提供業者一有效工具,以規劃出合適之短期飛航排程與班次表。本研究利用網路流動技巧構建模式,模式中包含多重機流時空網路,用以定式機隊在時空中的流動。在網路設計上,針對各航次加入替代航次節線,利用系統化方式考量各場站貨物處理時間與作業成本的關係,以決定各航次於場站間最佳之飛抵時間。此模式可定式為一整數多重貨物網路流動問題,屬NP-hard問題。本研究利用C電腦程式語言配合數學規劃軟體,進行求解,並以一國際快遞公司之亞太地區航線的營運資料進行模式之測試,模式之測試結果良好,顯示模式具實用價值,能於未來實務應用上提供業者作為有效改善贏用績效之輔助規劃工具。
Fleet routing and flight scheduling are important in carrier’s levels of services and operational performance. They always affect the usage efficiency of facilities and crew scheduling. As a result, they are essential to carriers’ profitability, level of service and competitive capability in the market. In the past, most research on airline scheduling was mainly focused on passenger transportation, which is fundamentally different from express package delivery. In passenger transportation, passengers are more sensitive to time than express cargos. Too many transfers in a transport service may result in a significant loss of passengers. However, in air express service, as long as the package arrives on time, the customer would not care how it is routed. Currently, the hub-and-spoke network is mostly adopted by express cargo carriers, which is different from general passenger air transportation networks. Besides, due to the consideration of timelines operations at each station, there are usually time window constraints for express cargo delivery. Because of the time window constraints, the operating costs of cargos at each airport and the hub are negatively related to their handling times. Therefore, considering the operating cost at each airport, carriers must arrange suitable flight arrival/departure times in order to lower operating costs. Although there was a scheduling model recently developed for general air cargo transportation, it was not developed on the characteristics of express package delivery.
Therefore, on the basis of the carrier’s perspective, this research develops a short-term scheduling model for international express package delivery, with the objective of minimizing the operating cost, subject to the related operating constraints. The model is expected to be a useful planning tool for air express carriers to determine a suitable fleet routing and timetables in their short-term operations. We will employ network flow techniques to construct the model, which will include multiple fleet time-space networks in order to formulate the fleet flows in the dimensions of time and space. We consider the relation between the handling time and the operating cost at each airport and introduce the alternative flight arcs into the time-space networks to decide on the best flight departure/arrival times. The model is expectedly formulated as a integer multiple commodity network flow problem that is characterized as an NP-hard problem. We use C computer language and a mathematical programming solver to develop an efficient algorithm to solve the problem. Finally, to evaluate the model and the solution algorithm, we perform a case study by using the real operating data from a major international air express carrier. The results indicate that the model works well and is useful in actual operations.
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究背景與動機 1
1.2研究目的與範圍 3
1.3研究方法與流程 4
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1國際快遞業及軸輻式航空網路相關文獻 5
2.2短程飛航排程相關文獻 9
2.3小結 12
第三章 現況分析 13
3.1營運網路概述 13
3.2亞太地區之營運概況 14
3.3貨物運送作業 16
3.4機場作業概況 17
3.5貨物通關作業 18
3.6問題描述 20
第四章 模式建構 23
4.1模式假設或基本條件 23
4.2模式架構 27
4.2.1網路設計考量因素 27
4.2.2單機種機流時空網路 29
4.2.3多機種機流時空網路 36
4.3數學定式 38
4.4單機定線 40
4.5小結 41
第五章 實例測試 42
5.1資料分析 42
5.1.1草擬班次表 42
5.1.2飛機機型與機隊規模 44
5.1.3時窗限制 44
5.1.4貨運量 44
5.1.5成本資料 45
5.2模式發展 46
5.2.1電腦環境及設定 46
5.2.2模式輸入資料 47
5.2.3模式輸出資料 48
5.3結果分析 49
5.3.1實例測試結果 49
5.3.2敏感度分析 52
5.4小結 69
第六章 結論與建議 70
6.1結論 70
6.2建議 71
6.3貢獻 72
參考文獻 73
附錄 77
附錄一 CPLEX callable library code 77
附錄二 航線里程資料 78
附錄三 MD-11機型各航段之飛行時間資料 79
附錄四 A310機型各航段之飛行時間資料 80
附錄五 各起迄對城市每日進出口貨量 81
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1. 10.顏上堯、翁綵穗,「季節轉換間緩衝期飛航排程之研究」,運輸計劃季刊,第三十卷,第四期,頁891-頁922 (2001)。
2. 8.顏上堯、何淑萍,「飛航排程暨班次表之建立」,運輸計劃季刊,第二十三卷,第一期,頁73-頁90 (1994)。
3. 11.顏上堯、曾志煌,「單機種機隊排程與班次整合之研究」,運輸計劃季刊,第二十八卷,第四期,頁635-頁658 (1999)。
4. 12.顏上堯、黃武強,「配合轉運中心之飛航定線與航次頻率規劃」,運輸計劃季刊,第二十五卷,第四期,頁681-頁708 (1996)。
5. 13.顏上堯、楊慧華,「多機種飛航排程與航次規劃」,運輸計劃季刊,第二十四卷,第二期,頁195-頁220 (1995)。
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9.  吳英明、林麗香,〈全球化與中國新安全觀〉,《國立中山大學社會科學季刊》,2卷3期(2000),頁1-40。
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