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研究生:潘宇男
研究生(外文):Yu-Nan Pan
論文名稱:應用於H.264/AVC移動評估之快速搜尋演算法設計
論文名稱(外文):A Fast Search Algorithm for Motion Estimation on H.264/AVC
指導教授:蔡宗漢蔡宗漢引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsung-Han Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:電機工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:73
中文關鍵詞:移動向量移動評估快速搜尋演算法H.264/AVC
外文關鍵詞:Fast Search AlgorithmH.264/AVCMotion EstimationMotion Vector
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在最新的標準MPEG-4 AVC/JVT/H.264 中,動態頻估可以利用多重參考以及多種型態的區塊來改良其壓縮率。然而全域搜尋(full search-FS)將搜尋所有的區塊型態和參考圖像,因此其運算複雜度隨著參考的張數以及區塊型態而線性增加。因此在本篇論文當中,一個新的搜尋方式,預測六角型演算法(predict hexagon search-PHS)將被提出。預測六角型演算法是改良自六角型演算法,其可預測六角型的形狀,並且在±2的十字範圍內做重點式的搜尋。經由實驗結果可得知,預測六角型演算法與鑽石型演算法(diamond search–DS)相比較可減少58%的搜尋點數,和六角型演算法(hexagon based search-HEXBS)比較可減少53%的搜尋點數。另一方面來說,預測六角型演算法可以預測相同的動態向量而花較少的搜尋點數。
The upcoming video coding standard, MPEG-4 AVC/JVT/H.264, motion estimation allowed to use multiple references and multiple block sizes to improve the rate-distortion performance. However, full exhaustive search of all block sizes is computational intensive with complexity increasing linearly to the number of allowed reference frame and block size. In this thesis, a novel search algorithm, predict hexagon search (PHS), is proposed. The PHS pattern is applied by the comparison with the hexagon based search pattern. It can predict the hexagon search pattern in horizontal or vertical direction and search the ±2 rood side first. Analysis shows that the speed improvement of the PHS over the diamond search (DS) and the hexagon based search (HEXBS) is about 58% and 53% respectively. On the other hand, the proposed PHS algorithm can find a same motion vector with fewer search points than the DS and HEXBS algorithm.
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 H.264 Overview 2
1.2.1 Features and Application for H.264 2
1.2.2 H.264/AVC Encoding System 3
1.2.3 Motivation 6
1.3 Thesis Organization 7

Chapter 2 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF MOTION ESTIMATION ON H.264 8
2.1 Motion Estimation and Motion Compensation 8
2.2 Characteristics of the motion estimations on H.264 14
2.2.1 Multiple Block Size 14
2.2.2 Multiple reference picture selection 16
2.2.3 Motion Estimation Accuracy 17
2.2.4 Motion Vector Prediction 21
2.3 Search Algorithm for Motion Estimation 23
2.3.1 Full Search Motion Estimation 23
2.3.2 Diamond Search and Hexagon Based Search 24

Chapter 3 ANALYSIS AND SPEED-IMPROVED METHOD FOR MOTION ESTIMATION ON H.264 30
3.1 Analysis of Motion Estimation 30
3.2 Predict Hexagon Search algorithm 34
3.2.1 Predict Hexagon Search Pattern 34
3.2.2 Algorithm Development 35
3.3 Simulation Result 42


Chapter 4 Conclusions 53

References 55
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[4]Joint Video Team software JM7.2, July, 2003.
[5]Yu-Wen Huang, Bing-Yu Hsieh, Tu-Chih Wang; Shao-Yi Chient, Shyh-Yih Ma, Chun-Fu Shen, Liang-Gee Chen, “Analysis and reduction of reference frames for motion estimation in MPEG-4 AVC/JVT/H.264,” Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 2003. Proceedings. (ICASSP '03). 2003 IEEE International Conference on , Volume: 3 , 6-10 April 2003
[6]“Emerging H.264 Standard: Overview and TMS320DM642-Based Solutions for Real-Time Video Application,” H.264 White Paper, http://www.ubvideo.com
[7] R. Schäfer, T. Wiegan and H. Schwarz, “The emerging H.264/AVC standard,” EBU Technical Review, January, http://www.ebu.ch/trev_293-schaefer.pdf
[8]“H.264/MPEG-4 Part 10: Overview,” H.264/MPEG-4 Part 10 White Paper, http://www.vcodex.com
[9]“H.264/MPEG-4 Part 10: Inter Prediction,” H.264/MPEG-4 Part 10 White Paper, http://www.vcodex.com
[10]Varsudev Bhaskaran and Konstantions Konstantinides “Image and Video Compression Standards: Algorithms and Architectures,” 2nd edition, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA, USA , 1997
[11]Richardson, Iain E. G. “Video codec design : developing image and video compression systems,” Chichester : Wiley, 2002
[12]Richardson, Iain E. G. “H.264 and MPEG-4 video compression : video coding for next-generation multimedia,” Chichester : Wiley, 2003
[13]Andy Chang, Oscar C. Au, Y. M. Yeung, “A Novel Approach to Fast Mult-Block Motion Estimation For H.264 Video Coding,” Multimedia and Expo, 2003. ICME '03. Proceedings. 2003 International Conference on, Volume: 1, 6-9 July 2003, Page(s): 105- 108
[14]Kimata, H., Kitahara, M. and Yashima, Y., “3D motion vector coding with block base adaptive interpolation filter on H.264,” Multimedia and Expo, 2003. ICME '03. Proceedings. 2003 International Conference on, Volume: 1, 6-9 July 2003, Page(s): 597- 600
[15]Shan Zhu and Kai-Kuang Ma, “ A new diamond search algorithm for fast block-matching motion estimation” Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on , Volume: 9 , Issue: 2 , Feb. 2000 Page(s):287 – 290
[16]Jo Yew Tham, Ranganath, S., Ranganath, M., and Kassim, A.A., “A novel unrestricted center-biased diamond search algorithm for block motion estimation” Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on , Volume: 8 , Issue: 4 , Aug. 1998 Pages:369 – 377
[17]Chun-Ho Cheung and Lai-Man Po, “A novel rood-diamond search algorithm for fast block motion estimation,” Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 2002. Proceedings. (ICASSP '02). IEEE International Conference on , Volume: 4 , 13-17 May 2002 Page(s):3397 - 3400
[18]Ce Zhu, Xiao Lin and Lap-Pui Chau, “Hexagon-based search pattern for fast block motion estimation,” Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on , Volume: 12 , Issue: 5 , May 2002 Page(s):349 – 355
[19]Kyuseo Han; Byungtae Chun “Adaptive hexagon search pattern for block motion estimation,” Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2003. IEEE International Conference on , Volume: 2 , 5-8 Oct. 2003 Page(s):1406 – 1409
[20]Ce Zhu, Xiao Lin and Lap-Pui Chau, “An enhanced hexagonal search algorithm for block motion estimation,” Circuits and Systems, 2003. ISCAS '03. Proceedings of the 2003 International Symposium on , Volume: 2 , 25-28 May 2003 Page(s):392 - 395
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