跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.84.188) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/06 12:39
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:何明哲
研究生(外文):Ming-Che Ho
論文名稱:五軸加工效能改進-利用誤差控制與刀具軸向平滑化
論文名稱(外文):Five-axis Machining Improvement via Cutting Error Control and Tool Orientation Smoothing
指導教授:黃衍任
指導教授(外文):Yean-Ren Hwang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:機械工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:119
中文關鍵詞:五軸加工刀具路徑規劃加工精度控制刀具軸向指定
外文關鍵詞:five-axis machiningtool-path generationcutting-error controltool-orientation assignment
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:407
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:150
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
五軸加工機具有加工效率佳與加工品質好之特性,為現代機械工業不可或缺的工具,應用範圍相當廣,從航空、造船、汽車、塑膠、模具或到光學產業,都可利用五軸加工機來執行各式加工任務。但是五軸加工機涉及的各軸運動關係相當複雜,且求解困難,同時機組昂貴,若撞機維修所費不貲。所以刀具路徑必須妥善計算,才能達成預期效能,發揮五軸加工的優勢。
近年來五軸加工研究方法,不是將複雜的問題簡化與系統化,就是針對特定情況進行單獨推導。前者歸納出簡單的數學式子,應用上較具彈性,但由於五軸加工各軸運動關係較三軸加工複雜許多,傳統的簡化觀點顯得不夠周延,常導致預期之外的錯誤;而後者雖歸納出簡單且周延的數學式子,但只適合特定情況,應用上沒有彈性。本研究仔細分析五軸加工各軸運動模式,提出全新的五軸加工觀點,並歸納一套系統化的法則,只需經過簡單的參數設定,就可以產生各種機台的切削碼程式,同時滿足加工精度與加工效率,並達到刀具路徑自動規劃的要求。
本研究內容包括:(一)建構工具機各軸的動態模型,及分析刀具和工件間相對的幾何關係。 (二)研發弦高誤差估算與貝丘高度控制演算法。(三)綜合弦高誤差估算演算法與貝丘高度控制演算法,提出刀具接觸點產生法則。(四)研發無干涉且平滑的刀具軸向指定方法。(五) 綜合刀具接觸點產生法則與刀具軸向指定方法,提出刀具路徑產生程序。
Comparing to three-axis machines, five-axis machines perform more efficient and accurate machining. It has become an important tool for modern engineering industries and is widely used in aerospace, shipbuilding, automobile, plastic, mold, and optical industries. However the kinematic equations of five-axis machines are highly complex, and hard to solve. A careless collision between the parts of the machine will be a disaster, because the maintenance is extremely expensive. Therefore, the tool paths should be computed correctly in order to fully exploit the flexibility of five-axis machines.
These methodologies can be considered only either the simplifications of the machine systems or the applications for some special circumstances. The former methodologies obtain mathematical models by simplifying some factors which can be applied flexibly. However, due to the kinematic complication, it is hardly to fulfill all five-axis machining conditions. Consequently, it results in unexpected errors. The latter methodologies, researchers try to limit the scope of the machining conditions to overcome the problems. However, this will deteriorate the flexibility of the resulted equations seriously. In this dissertation, a systematic methodology is developed to obtain the exact kinematic motions among axes of the machine through simple kinematic parameter assignment. Based on these accurate kinematic equations, efficient tool paths are determined.
This research comprises the following tasks: (1) analyze the kinematic relation between the machine tools, and the geometric relation between the cutter and the part surface; (2) develop generalized formulae for the chordal deviation estimation and the scallop height control, which can be applied to all types of five-axis machines; (3) develop the CCPG method, which combines the CDE algorithm and the SHC algorithm in order to improve the machined surface quality; (4) develop the TOS method, which can be used to assign interference-free and smooth tool orientations; (5) combine the TOS method and the CCPG method to form a new tool-path generation procedure.
摘要 I
Abstract II
Acknowledgement III
Contents IV
Figure List VI
Table List IX
Nomenclature X
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Related Works 3
1.3 Research Methodology 6
1.4 Organization of the Dissertation 8
Chapter 2 Kinematic Model for the Five-axis Machine 10
2.1 Introduction 10
2.2 Five-axis Machine Tools 10
2.2.1 Classification of Five-axis Machines 10
2.2.2 Dimension of the Generalized Cutter 12
2.3 Coordinate Definition 14
2.4 Manipulator Kinematics of the Machine 17
2.5 Postprocessor for a Five-axis Machine 19
2.5.1 Kinematic Model of a Five-axis Machine 20
2.5.2 Postprocessor for a Table-tilting Type Five-axis Machine 22
2.5.3 Machine Rotational Angle Arrangement Method 25
Chapter 3 Computational Geometry for Five-axis Machining 29
3.1 Introduction 29
3.2 Effective Surface Curvature 29
3.3 Effective Cutting Curvature 32
3.3.1 Generalized Tool Description for Five-axis Machining 33
3.3.2 Effective Cutting Profile of a Generalized Inclined Cutter 34
3.3.3 Effective Cutting Curvature of the Effective Cutting Profile 37
3.4 Parametric Increment Conversion Method 39
3.4.1 Marching along a Marching Direction 40
3.4.2 Error Compensation Algorithm 41
3.4.3 The Parameter Adjusting Algorithm 43
3.4.4 Procedures for the PIC Method 44
Chapter 4 Cutter Contact Point Generation for Five-axis Machining 46
4.1 Introduction 46
4.2 Chordal Deviation Estimation Algorithm 47
4.2.1 Traditional CDE Algorithm 48
4.2.2 Modification on Traditional CDE Algorithms 50
4.2.3 Generalized CDE Algorithm Using D-H Matrix 58
4.3 Scallop Height Control Algorithm 61
4.3.1 SHC Algorithm for a Convex Surface 64
4.3.2 SHC Algorithm for a Concave Surface 68
4.3.3 SHC Algorithm for a Flat Surface 71
4.4 CC Point Generation Method 72
Chapter 5 Tool Orientation Smoothing for Five-axis Machining 76
5.1 Introduction 76
5.2 Quaternion Interpolation of Tool Orientations 77
5.3 Interference Avoidance of Tool Orientations 80
5.3.1 Gouge Avoidance Algorithm 80
5.3.2 Collision Avoidance Algorithm 82
5.4 Tool Orientation Smoothing Method 83
Chapter 6 Tool Path Generation for Five-axis Machining 88
6.1 Introduction 88
6.2 Tool Path Generation Procedure 88
6.3 Machining Experiments 92
6.3.1 Verification of the Performances of the CCPG method 92
6.3.2 Further Verification of the Tool-path Generation Procedure 97
Chapter 7 Conclusion and Future Trend 111
7.1 Conclusion 111
7.2 Future Trend 111
Reference 113
1. G. Farin, “Curves and surfaces for computer aided geometric design a practical guide”, Academic Press, Inc., 1988.
2. A. Davies and P. Samuels, “An introduction to computational geometry for curve and surfaces”, Clarendon Press Oxford, 1996.
3. I.D. Faux and M.J. Pratt, “Computational geometry for design and manufacture”, Ellis Horwood Ltd., 1979.
4. J. Gallier, “Geometric methods and applications for computer science and engineering”, Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 2001.
5. L. Piepl, and W. Tiller, “The NURBS book second edition”, Springer-Verlag, Inc., 1997.
6. C. McMahon and J. Browne, “CAD CAM principles, practice and manufacturing management second edition”, Addison-Wesley, 1998.
7. K. Lee, “Principles of CAD/CAM/CAE systems”, Addison-Wesley, 1999.
8. I. Zeid, “CAD/CAM theory and practice”, McGraw-Hill, 1991.
9. M. Balasubramaniam, S. Ho, S. Sarma, Y. Adachi, “Generation of collision-free 5-axis tool paths using a haptic surface”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 34, pp.267-279, 2002.
10. T.C. Chuang, R.A. Wysk, and H.P. Wang, “Computer-aided manufacturing second edition”, Prentice-Hall International, Inc., 1998.
11. B.K. Choi, C.S. Lee, J.S. Hwang, and C.S. Jun, “Compound surface modeling and machining”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp.127-136, 1988.
12. G.C. Loney and T.M. Ozsoy, “NC machining of free-form surfaces”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp.85-90, 1987.
13. J.Y. Lai, and D.J. Wang, “Automatic generation of NC cutting path for sculptured surfaces”, Journal of the Chinese Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp.551-895, 1994.
14. A.C. Lin, and HT. Liu, “Automatic generation of NC cutter path from massive data points”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 30, pp.77-90, 1998.
15. S.H. Suh, and Y.S. Shin, “Neural network modeling for tool path planning of rough cut in complex pocket milling”, Journal of Manufacturing Systems, Vol. 15, No. 5, pp.295-304, 1996.
16. B.K. Choi, D.H. Kim, and R.B. Jerard, “C-space approach to tool-path generation for die and mould machining”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 29, No. 9, pp.657-669, 1997.
17. E. Lee, “Contour offset approach to spiral tool path generation with constant scallop height”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 35, pp.511-518, 2003.
18. S.X. Li, and R.B. Jerard, “5-axis machining of sculptured surface with a flat-end cutter”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp.165-178, 1994.
19. D. Dragomatz, and S. Mann, “A classified bibliography of literature on NC milling path generation”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp.239-247, 1997.
20. H.D. Cho, Y.T. Jun, and M.Y. Yang, “Five-axis CNC milling for effective machining of sculptured surfaces”, International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 31, No. 11, pp.2559-2573, 1993.
21. Y.R. Hwang and C.S. Liang, “Cutting Error Analysis for Spindle-Tilting Type Five-Axis NC Machines”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.14, pp.399-405, 1998.
22. Y.R. Hwang, “Cutting Error Analysis for Table-Tilting Type Four-Axis NC Machines”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.16, pp.265-270, 2000.
23. Y.R. Hwang, and M.T. Ho, “Estimation of maximum allowable step length for five-axis cylindrical machining”, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp.15-24, 2000.
24. M.C. Ho, and Y.R. Hwang, “A new decision algorithm of maximum allowable step length for 5-axis table-tilting type machining”, Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp.233-242, 2002.
25. M.C. Ho, and Y.R. Hwang, “Machine Codes Modification Algorithm for Five-Axis Machining”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 142, No. 2, pp.452-460, 2003.
26. M.C. Ho, Y.R. Hwang, and Chang-Hsia Hu, “Five-axis Tool Orientation Smoothing Using Quaternion Interpolation Algorithm”, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 43, No. 12, pp.1256-1267, 2003.
27. X.D. Lai, et al, “Geometrical error analysis and control for 5-axis machining of large sculptured surfaces”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 21, pp.110-118, 2003.
28. J.S. Liang, “The research of 5-axis machining error and tool's tilt angle”, Master thesis, National Central University Dep. of M.E., 1997.
29. C.H. Hu, “Cutting-error control and tool-axis assignment for multi-axis machining”, Master thesis, National Central University Dep. of M.E., 2001.
30. C.L. Chen, “Cutting-error estimation and NC code modification for multi-axis machining”, Master thesis, National Central University Dep. of M.E., 2001.
31. K. Suresh and D.C.H. Yang, “Constant scallop-height machining of free-form surfaces”, ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry, Vol. 116, pp.253-259, May 1994.
32. R.S. Lin and Y. Koren, “Efficient tool-path planning for machining free-form surfaces”, ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry, Vol. 118, pp.20-28, February 1996.
33. R. Sarma and D. Dutta, “The geometry and generation of NC tool paths”, ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol.119, pp.253-258, June 1997.
34. Vickers, G.W. and Quan, K.W., “Ball-mills versus end-mills for curved surface machining”, ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry, Vol. 111, pp. 22-26, 1989.
35. C.C. Lo, “Efficient cutter-path planning for five-axis surface machining with a flat-end cutter”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 31, pp.557-566, 1999.
36. Y.S. Lee, and T.C. Chang, “Machined surface error analysis for 5-axis machining”, International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp.111-135, 1996.
37. Y.S. Lee, and H. Ji, “Surface interrogation and machining strip evaluation for 5-axis CNC die and mold machining”, International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp.225-252, 1997.
38. J. Pi, W.E. Red, and C.G. Jensen, “Grind-free tool path generation for five-axis surface machining”, Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp.334-350, 1998.
39. Y.S. Lee, “Mathematical modeling using different end mills and tool placement problems for 4- and 5-axis NC complex surface machining”, International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp.785-814, 1998.
40. Y.S. Lee, “Non-isoparametric tool path planning by machining strip evaluation for 5-axis sculptured surface machining”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 30, No. 7, pp.559-570, 1998.
41. C.J. Chiou, and Y.S. Lee, “A shape-generating approach for multi-axis machining G-buffer models”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 31, pp.761-776, 1999.
42. D. Roth, S. Bedi, F. Ismail, and S. Mann, “Surface swept by a toroidal cutter during 5-axis machining”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 33, pp.57-63, 2001.
43. S. Mann, and S. Bedi, “Generalization of the imprint method to general surfaces of revolution for NC machining”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 34, pp.373-378, 2002.
44. P. Gray, S. Bedi, and F. Ismail, “Rolling ball method for 5-axis surface machining”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 35, pp.347-357, 2003.
45. B.K. Choi, “Cutter-location data optimization in 5-axis surface machining”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp.377-386, 1992.
46. Y.S. Lee, and T.C. Chang, “Automatic cutter selection for 5-axis sculptured surface machining”, International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp.997-998, 1996.
47. Y.S Lee, “Admissible tool orientation control of gouging avoidance for 5-axis complex surface machining”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 29, No. 7, pp.507-521, 1997.
48. J. M. Redonnet, W. Rubio, F. Monies, and G. Dessein, “Optimising tool positioning for end-mill machining of free-from surfaces on 5-axis machines for both semi-finishing and finishing” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.16, pp.383-391, 2000.
49. R.S. Lee, and J.N. Lee, “New method of tool orientation determination by enveloping element for five-axis machining of spatial cam”, International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 40, No. 10, pp.2379-2398, 2002.
50. C.G. Jensen, W.E. Red, and J. Pi, “Tool selection for five-axis curvature matched machining”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp.251-266, 2002.
51. C.J. Chiou, and Y.S. Lee, “A machining potential field approach to tool path generation for multi-axis sculptured surface machining”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 34, pp.357-371, 2002.
52. J.H. Yoon, H. Pottmann, and Y.S. Lee, “Locally optimal cutting positions for 5-axis sculptured surface machining”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 35, pp.69-81, 2003.
53. C.S. Jun, K. Cha, and Y.S. Lee, “Optimizing tool orientations for 5-axis machining by configuration-space search method”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 35, pp.549-566, 2003.
54. Y.R. Hwang, M.C. Ho, C.H. Hu, “Five-axis tool path generation based on discrete point data”, in: Proc. Precision Machinery Manufacturing Conference, Tarnkang University, Taipei, Taiwan, pp.149-153, 2001.
55. Y.S Lee, and T.C. Chang, “2-Phase approach to global tool interference avoidance in 5-axis machining”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 27, No. 10, pp.715-729, 1995.
56. F. Li, et al, “Gouge detection and tool position modification for five-axis NC machining of sculptured surfaces”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 48, pp.739-745, 1995.
57. N. Rao, F. Ismail, and S. Bedi, “Tool path planning for five-axis machining using the principal axis method”, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 37, No. 7, pp.1025-1040, 1997.
58. I. Cho, K. Lee, and J. Kim, “Generation of collision-free cutter location data in five-axis milling using the potential energy method”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.13, pp.523-529, 1997.
59. K. Morishige, K. Kase, and Y. Takeuchi, “Collision-free tool path generation using 2-dimensional C-space for 5-axis control machining”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 13, pp.393-400, 1997.
60. C.F. You, and C.H. Chu, “Tool-path verification in five-axis machining of sculptured surfaces”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 13, pp.248-255, 1997.
61. A. Seiler, V. Balendran, and K. Sivayoganathan, “Tool interference detection and avoidance based on offset nets”, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 37, No. 5, pp.717-722, 1997.
62. E.A. Gani, et al, “A geometrical model of the cut in five-axis milling accounting for the influence of tool orientation”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 13, pp.677-684, 1997.
63. A. Rao, and R. Sarma, “On local gouging in five-axis sculptured surface machining using flat-end tools”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 32, pp.409-420, 2000.
64. X.J. Xu, et al, “Tool-path generating for five-axis machining of free-from surfaces based on accessibility analysis”, International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 40, No. 14, pp.3253-3274, 2002.
65. B. Lauwers, P. Dejonghe, and J.P. Kruth, “Optimal and collision free tool posture in five-axis machining through the tight integration of tool path generation and machine simulation”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 35, pp.421-432, 2003.
66. E.L. Bohez, et al, “The stencil buffer sweep plane algorithm for 5-axis CNC tool path verification”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 35, pp.1129-1142, 2003.
67. C.C. Hong, “Collision detection for five-axis machining using point- classification method”, Master thesis, National Central University Dep. of M.E., 2002.
68. R.S. Lee, and C.H. She, “Developing a postprocessor for three types of five-axis machine tools”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 13, pp.658-665, 1997.
69. Y.W. Hsueh, “Tool path planning and collision problem on multi-axis machining center”, PhD dissertation, National Taiwan University Dep. of M.E., 1997.
70. S.H. Hu, “The design of general five axis postprocessor”, Master thesis, National Taiwan University Dep. of M.E., 1999.
71. B. Lauwers, J.P. Kruth, and P. Dejonghe, “An operation planning system for multi-axis milling of sculptured surfaces”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 17, pp.799-804, 2001.
72. H.T. Young, and L.C. Chuang, “An integrated machining approach for a centrifugal impeller”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 21, pp.556-563, 2003.
73. L.W. Kang, “Tool path planning for multi-axis machining”, Master thesis, National Taiwan University Dep. of M.E., 1998.
74. C.H. Wang, “The integrated machining technology of an impeller”, Master thesis, National Taiwan University Dep. of M.E., 1999.
75. W.H. Chen, “The integrated study of five-axis machining process”, Master thesis, National Taiwan University Dep. of M.E., 2000.
76. L.C. Chuang, “The Integrated Machining Approach for Centrifugal Impeller”, PhD dissertation, National Taiwan University Dep. of M.E., 2003.
77. F.L. Lee, “Parallel tool path planning for five-axis machining”, Master thesis, National Central University Dep. of M.E., 1995.
78. Y.C. Sue, “Tool-path planning for five-axis milling of free-form surface”, Master thesis, National Tsing Hua University Dep. of Power M.E., 1995.
79. Y.W. Chen, “The research on 5-axis CNC surface machining”, Master thesis, National Chung Cheng University Dep. of M.E., 2000.
80. H.C. Chen, “A study of multi-axis machining of centrifugal compressor impellers”, Master thesis, National Sun Yat-Sen University Dep. of M.E., 1999.
81. H.C. Chang, “Use of 3D geometric model to develop an interference-free multi-axis inspection system”, PhD dissertation, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology Dep. of M.E., 2003.
82. A. Hansen, “Detailed statement of requirements for tool axis enhancements in surface contouring”, EDS Unigraphics, Oct. 16, 1992.
83. K. Shoemarke, “Animating rotation with quaternion curves”, Computer Graphics, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp.245-254, 1985.
84. “SURFCAM application procedural interface (API)”, Surfware, Inc., 2000.
85. Y. Lin, and Y. Shen, “Modelling of five-axis machine tool metrology models using the matrix summation approach”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 21, pp.243-248, 2003.
86. R.MD. Mahbubur, et al, “Positioning accuracy improvement in five-axis milling by post processing”, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp.223-226, 1997.
87. G. Yu, “General tool correction for five-axis milling”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 10, pp.374-378, 1995.
88. J.J. Craig, “Introduction to robotics mechanics and control second edition”, Addison-Wesley, 1986.
89. C.Y. Chu, “Mechanism implementation and design of obstacle-avoidance controllers for a hexapod robot system”, Tarnkang University Dep. of M.E., 2003.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top