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研究生:謝慧禎
研究生(外文):Jane Hsieh
論文名稱:石油系統之有機材料與熱成熟度特性探討
論文名稱(外文):Characteristics of organic material and thermal maturity in petroleum system studies
指導教授:蔡龍珆蔡龍珆引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:應用地質研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:105
中文關鍵詞:石油系統熱成熟度鏡煤素反射率Rock-Eval熱裂分析
外文關鍵詞:petroleum systemthermal maturityvitrinite reflectanceRock-Eval pyrolysis
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  • 被引用被引用:7
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在石油探勘上,目前多以石油系統概念作為分析主軸,其中油氣潛能評估佔有重要的地位,而生油材料或生油岩的評估更是重點。生油岩評估乃探討其生成碳氫化合物的量與質:在量方面主要分析生油岩中有機碳之含量;在質方面則是探討生油岩有機材料類型與其受熱變質情況。有機材料富集度、有機材料類型與熱成熟度為主要評估依據。
本研究針對有機材料與熱成熟度兩大項進行探討,研究方法以煤素質成分分析、元素分析、鏡煤素反射率量測與熱裂分析為主;其中之煤素質成分分析與元素分析乃用以對有機材料進行分析探討,鏡煤素反射率與熱裂分析中之Tmax則為熱成熟度之指標。樣本包括台灣北部桃竹苗地區的南莊層、石底層與木山層之煤樣與碳質頁岩樣、大陸地區煤樣與油頁岩樣、向外購買之Woodford頁岩與Green River頁岩,另外更以分離不同比例煤素質來探討各煤素質之材料特性與成熟度上之相關性。
實驗結果發現不同有機材料會影響成熟度指標的結果;而不同地區之有機材料的H/C與鏡煤素反射率樣品點均呈現曲線變化,此說明了儘管有機材料沈積環境、受熱變質情況不同,但在化學元素變化上,卻會產生相似趨勢;而整體而言,Ro=0.5%、H/C=0.1時為曲線之轉折點。
During the process of petroleum exploration, the concept of Petroleum System had become a main part of hydrocarbon potential analysis, in which the evaluation of source rock is especially noticed. The evaluation of source rock includes quantity and quality of hydrocarbon. In analyzing the quantity of hydrocarbon, the content of organic carbon is important, whereas the organic types and thermal maturity are concerned in quality of hydrocarbon. As for today, organic richness, organic types and thermal maturity are generally used for evaluation.

In order to discuss the relationship between organic material and thermal maturity, four analytic methods are used in this study: maceral composition analysis, elemental analysis, vitrinite reflectance measurement and Rock-Eval pyrolysis. The former two methods will be used to discuss the characteristics of organic materials, whereas the latter two methods are used to disscuss their maturities. The samples studied include coals and coaly shales of Mushan Formation, Shihti Formation and Nanchuang Formation in NW Taiwan, coals and an oil shale from Mainland China in addition to Green River shale and Woodford Shale from U.S.A. Furthermore, maceral mixtures separated from DGC are also studied.
The analytic results indicate that different organic matters will affect the result of maturity. Plotting a curve with H/C ratio vs vitrinite reflectance, we find that even though the heated environments are different in Taiwan and Mainland China, their organic micelles exhibit a similar trend in the process of coalification. As a whole, the curve has a turning point at Ro=0.5% and H/C=0.1 in this study.
目 錄
論文提要………………………………………………… I
誌謝………………………………………………………II
目錄………………………………………………………III
圖目………………………………………………………VI
表目…………………………………………………… VIII
符號說明…………………………………………………IX

第一章 緒論………………………………………………1
1.1 研究動機及目的………………………………………1
1.2 內文概述………………………………………………2
第二章 前人研究與文獻回顧……………………………3
2.1 有機材料之分類………………………………………3
2.1.1 煤的分類……………………………………………3
2.1.2 有機質(油母質)的分類…………………………5
2.2 成熟度指標 …………………………………………12
2.2.1 鏡煤素反射率 ……………………………………12
2.2.2 熱裂分析 …………………………………………13
第三章 樣品介紹 ………………………………………18
3.1 樣品之選取 …………………………………………18
3.2 台灣地區有機材料樣品介紹 ………………………18
3.2.1採樣點………………………………………………18
3.2.2中新世含煤地層概述………………………………20
3.2.3中新世沈積環境……………………………………25
3.3 大陸地區有機材料樣品介紹 ………………………31
3.3.1樣品位置分佈………………………………………31
3.3.2樣品地層概述………………………………………31
3.3.3沈積環境概述………………………………………35
3.4 美國地區有機材料樣品介紹 ………………………41
3.4.1樣品位置分佈與地層概述…………………………41
3.4.2沈積環境概述………………………………………41
第四章 實驗方法 ………………………………………44
4.1 樣品製備 ……………………………………………44
4.1.1粉煤餅之製作………………………………………44
4.1.2煤餅之拋光…………………………………………45
4.1.3煤素質群之分離……………………………………46
4.2 煤素質群成分數點分析 ……………………………49
4.3 煤樣主要元素分析 …………………………………51
4.4 鏡煤素反射率量測 …………………………………52
4.5 煤樣熱裂分析 ………………………………………53
第五章 結果與討論 ……………………………………57
5.1 實驗結果 ……………………………………………57
5.1.1煤素質成分百分比…………………………………57
5.1.2主要元素分析………………………………………61
5.1.3鏡煤素反射率量測…………………………………61
5.1.4 熱裂分析 …………………………………………66
5.2 綜合討論 ……………………………………………70
5.2.1重液分離煤素質之有機材料與熱成熟度探討……70
5.2.2生油岩之比較與探討………………………………74
5.2.2.1 同一生油岩區樣品材料比對 …………………74
5.2.2.2 有機材料與熱成熟度相關參數探討 …………75
5.2.2.3 台灣、大陸地區之有機材料與熱成熟度探討.78
第六章 結論與建議 ……………………………………82
6.1 結論 …………………………………………………82
6.2 實驗之困難與建議 …………………………………82
參考文獻 …………………………………………………85
附錄:鏡煤素反射率量測頻譜圖 ………………………93
英文摘要…………………………………………………104
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