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研究生:黃鴻期
研究生(外文):Hung-Chi Huang
論文名稱:電弧爐煉鋼廠及中小型焚化爐戴奧辛物種分佈探討
論文名稱(外文):Evaluation of the Emission Characteristics of PCDD/F from Electric Arc Furnaces and Industrial Waste Incinerators
指導教授:張木彬張木彬引用關係
指導教授(外文):Moo-Been Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:環境工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:130
中文關鍵詞:戴奧辛氧化期還原電弧爐中小型事業廢棄物焚化爐
外文關鍵詞:electric arc furnacePCDD/Fsindustrial waste incinerator
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本研究針對電弧爐煉鋼廠及中小型焚化爐之戴奧辛排放特性進行探討,針對電弧爐廠煉鋼過程之氧化期與還原期進行煙道採樣分析,並同時針對爐渣及集塵灰進行採樣與分析工作;另一方面,亦針對國內中小型焚化爐戴奧辛物種濃度分佈與空氣污染防制設備關聯性進行探討。就煉鋼製程之氧化期濃度顯示,CO轉化槽後氧化期PCDD/Fs濃度(862.3 ng/Nm3 ; 48.48 ng I-TEQ/Nm3),袋濾式集塵器前氧化期PCDD/Fs濃度(711.7 ng/Nm3 ; 32.52 ng I -TEQ/Nm3);而在煉鋼製程之還原期濃度,CO轉化槽後還原期PCDD/Fs濃度(817.3 ng/Nm3 ; 33.43 ng I -TEQ/Nm3),袋濾式集塵器前還原期PCDD/Fs濃度(546.7 ng/Nm3 ; 25.49 ng I -TEQ/Nm3),由此可知,煉鋼製程氧化期濃度略高於還原期濃度,且各採樣點皆以固相PCDD/Fs為主。電弧爐煉鋼廠所分析飛灰中以BF ash之PCDD/Fs濃度(31.2 ng/g)為最高,推測係由於BF捕集較多微細粒狀物,導致BF ash之PCDD/Fs濃度較高。中小型事業廢棄物焚化爐分別探討濕式靜電集塵器與活性碳吸附塔對於PCDD/Fs之去除效率與特性,濕式靜電集塵器對於固相戴奧辛去除效率(90.5 %)優於氣相(28.8 %)。活性碳吸附塔對於氣相戴奧辛去除效率(84.5 %)優於固相(-13.4 %),固相戴奧辛經過活性碳吸附塔後不減反增,推測與活性碳吸附塔之碳微粒剝落有關。所分析之灰份以EP washing sludge之濃度值(5,313 ng/g)最高,由於洗滌水為一再循環回收再利用,因此戴奧辛一直在其中累積導致濃度值較高。電弧爐煉鋼廠之煙道氣PCDD/Fs濃度分佈百分比與中小型事業廢棄物焚化爐相似,以PCDF為主,且以1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF、OCDF及OCDD為主要優勢物種;而PCDD/Fs之TEQ濃度百分比亦以PCDF為主,且以2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF為最主要優勢物種(佔40~50 %)。
Electric arc furnaces (EAFs) and industrial waste incinerators (IWIs) are major emission sources of dioxins in Taiwan. For EAFs, the flue gases were sampled after CO converter, prior to baghouse and stack to measure dioxin concentrations and to investigate the characteristics of PCDD/F congener distribution. Dioxin emissions at stages of oxidation and reduction at an EAF were also characterized. Besides, slag, BF ash, and cyclone ash were sampled and analyzed. In EAF, the PCDD/F concentration emitted at oxidation stage is higher than that during reduction stage for all sampling points, including the points of CO converter outlet, prior to baghouse and stack. The removal efficiency (86.2 %) of particulate-phase PCDD/Fs was higher than that in gas phase (35.6 %) with fabric filtration. BF ash has the highest PCDD/F concentration (31.2 ng/g) of all ashes sampled. As for IWI, WET-EP applied achieves a higher removal efficiency for particulate-phase PCDD/Fs (90.5 %) than that in gas-phase. The removal efficiency (84.5 %) of gas-phase PCDD/Fs was significantly higher than that in particulate-phase with fixed carbon bed. PCDD/F concentration of EP washing sludge is the highest (5,313 ng/g) in IWI. It is important to note that the washing water is circulated for reuse, therefore, PCDD/Fs accumulate in that, resulting in its high PCDD/F concentration. Major contributors to the dioxin concentrations at each sampling point of EAF and IWI include 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, OCDD and OCDF. 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF contributes about 50 % Toxic Equivalent Quantity (TEQ) concentrations at each sampling point.
目錄
目錄……………………………………………………………………..…….Ⅰ
圖目錄……………………………………………………………..................Ⅳ
表目錄………………………………………………………………….…….Ⅷ

第一章 前言………………………………………………………………1
1.1 研究緣起…………………………………………………………...1
1.2 研究背景及目的…………………………………………………...2
第二章 文獻回顧…………………………………………………………4
2.1 戴奧辛之基本認識………………………………………………...4
2.1.1 戴奧辛之結構…………………………………………………4
2.1.2 戴奧辛之基本特性……………………………………………4
2.1.3 戴奧辛對人體健康及環境之影響……………………………8
2.2 戴奧辛之環境傳輸與流佈………………………………………….9
2.3 燃燒過程中戴奧辛之生成機制…………………………………...10
2.3.1 De Novo合成反應…………………………………………...12
2.3.2 前驅物異相催化反應………………………………………..12
2.4 戴奧辛污染源排放………………………………………………...13
2.4.1 各國戴奧辛污染源排放量……………………………………13
2.4.2 戴奧辛排放之管制標準………………………………………17
2.5 戴奧辛於環境中氣固相分佈……………………………………...19
2.6 國內電弧爐煉鋼廠與中小型廢棄物焚化廠現況………………...20
2.6.1 電弧爐煉鋼廠現況……………………………………………20
2.6.2 中小型廢棄物焚化廠現況……………………………………23
2.7 戴奧辛之控制技術……………………………………………...…28
2.8 粒狀物控制技術…………………………………………………...30

第三章 研究方法………………………………………………………..33
3.1 研究流程設計……………………………………………………...33
3.2 採樣程序………………………………………………………….33
3.2.1 採樣對象選擇………………………………………………..33
3.2.2 煙道採樣程序………………………………………………..34
3.2.3 灰樣品採樣程序……………………………………………..34
3.3 實驗藥品與試劑……………………………………… ………….40
3.3.1 實驗藥品……………………………………………… ……..40
3.3.2 實驗溶劑……………………………………………… ……..41
3.4 實驗材料與設備……………………………………………… ….41
3.4.1 實驗材料……………………….………………………… ….41
3.4.2 實驗設備………………………………………………… …..42
3.5 採樣方法……………………………………………………… ….43
3.5.1 樣品瓶之清洗程序……………………………………… …..43
3.5.2 煙道採樣設備……………………………………………… ..43
3.6 戴奧辛分析方法………………………………………………… .50
3.6.1 樣品前處理……………………………………………… …..52
3.6.2 分析儀器條件之設定…………………………………… …..59
第四章 結果與討論…………………………………………………….61
4.1 電弧爐煉鋼廠戴奧辛濃度分佈特性…………………………….61
4.1.1 電弧爐煉鋼廠戴奧辛排放量……………………………..61
4.1.2 電弧爐煉鋼廠戴奧辛氣固比及濃度分佈探討…………..63
4.1.3 電弧爐實廠操作參數與PCDD/Fs濃度之關係………….76
4.1.4 電弧爐煉鋼廠戴奧辛之去除效率探討………………….77
4.2 電弧爐煉鋼廠爐渣及飛灰中戴奧辛濃度分佈特性…………….78
4.3 中小型焚化爐戴奧辛濃度分佈特性…………………………….80

4.3.1 中小型焚化爐戴奧辛排放量……………………………..81
4.3.2 中小型焚化爐戴奧辛氣固比及濃度分佈探討…………..84
4.3.3 中小型焚化爐實廠操作參數與PCDD/Fs濃度之關係…91
4.3.4 中小型焚化爐戴奧辛之去除效率探討………………....93
4.4 中小型焚化爐灰份中戴奧辛濃度分佈特性…………………...95
4.5 各廠戴奧辛濃度分佈探討與比較……………………………...96
4.5.1 各廠煙道氣與灰份中戴奧辛濃度分佈探討與比較……96
4.5.2 各廠戴奧辛濃度與粒狀物濃度相關性之探討與比較.103
4.6 各廠戴奧辛排放推估…………………………………………108
4.6.1 電弧爐煉鋼過程戴奧辛流佈特性分析……………….108
4.6.2 電弧爐煉鋼廠戴奧辛排放係數…………………………110
4.6.3 中小型廢棄焚化過程戴奧辛流佈特性分析……………114
4.6.4 中小型焚化爐戴奧辛排放係數…………………………117
第五章 結論與建議…………………………………………………...119
5.1 結論……………………………………………………………...119
5.2 建議……………………………………………………………...121
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………..122
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