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研究生:孫政遠
研究生(外文):Cheng-Yuan Sun
論文名稱:連續流循序批分式活性污泥系統自動控制策略發展與系統建置-線上污泥沉降性監測方法之建立
論文名稱(外文):Development of an Automation System for Sludges in CFSBRs — On-line Monitoring of Activated Sludges
指導教授:秦靜如秦靜如引用關係廖述良廖述良引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ching-Ju ChinShu-Liang Liaw
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:環境工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:污泥容積指數層沉降速度連續流循序批分式活性污泥系統自動監測控制污泥沉降
外文關鍵詞:Development of an Automation System for Sludges in
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CFSBR系統係屬一個連續進流、批次排放的活性污泥程序,經過多年的研究發展,在電腦資訊化與程序控制自動化上已有相當不錯的成果,然而污泥沉降性的監控方面,仍未有即時監測工具與方法,常常導致污泥品質發生異常的時機不易掌握,而增加系統操作失敗之風險。因此,為符合發展CFSBR自動監測控制系統的需求,本研究乃利用MLSS線上監測設備,並根據CFSBR系統之理論污泥沉降型態及理論MLSS監測曲線,建立一線上即時量測活性污泥沉降性的方法,包括計算層沉降速率(ZSV)、污泥體積(SVeq)的參數,以作為評估污泥品質與系統操作成效之依據。研究操作初期,利用線上監測之污泥沉降性資料,觀察CFSBR系統在馴養期間污泥品質與系統處理成效之結果發現,為達到單槽中同時去除碳、氮及磷的功能,馴養期於好氧相之操作,應提供硝化菌喜好的較高溶氧環境,以促進其生長,並使膠羽形成菌具備競爭優勢,抑制絲狀菌之生長,防止沉降性不佳問題之發生。最後,系統可根據即時監測污泥沈降情形,控制沈澱相的操作時間,減少還原物種累積於反應槽中,使放流水的水質更佳。另外並藉由即時量測之污泥沉降速度來決定排水堰的啟動時間,以降低污泥流失的風險,同時應用於排泥相的廢棄污泥量控制上,可有效維持系統操作之穩定性,達成CFSBR系統自動化與最佳化控制之需求。
A CFSBR (continuous-flow sequencing batch reactor) is an activated sludge process that wastewater flows in continuously and flows out batch by batch. The system consists of six phases: anaerobic, aerobic, anoxic, re-aeration, settling, as well as water and sludge discharge phases. Data processing and process automation have been well established after years of development of this system. However, there is still no effective monitoring for the characteristics of the activated sludge in the reactor, which leads to difficulties to control the performance of the system promptly. In this research, MLSS sensors are utilized to monitor the quality of the sludge in the system. A real-time measuring method for activated sludge characteristics, such as zone settling velocity (ZSV) and the sludge volume parameter (SVeq), was developed based on the activated sludge settling theory and the MLSS monitoring curves. The measured values were used to evaluate the quality of the sludge and the performance of the CFSBR.
It was found that in order to remove carbonaceous, nitrogenous, and phosphorus materials from the wastewater, the dissolved oxygen in the aerobic phase during the sludge cultivation period should be high enough so that the growth of nitrified bacteria could be enhanced and that of filamentous microorganisms could be suppressed, which would prevent the poor settling of the sludge.
The operation time of the sludge settling phase was then minimized by monitoring the settling of sludge, which would decrease the accumulation of reduced species and improve the quality of the discharged water. Also, the calculated sludge settling velocity could be used to determine the starting time of the drainage weir to minimize the leakages of the sludge. Moreover, the monitored data can be used to estimate the amount of sludge to be discharged and maintain the stability of the system.
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究流程 3

第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1 活性污泥之沉降性 4
2.1.1 污泥沉降之基本型態 4
2.1.2 污泥沉降性不佳的問題與現象 9
2.2 傳統污泥沉降性量測方法 12
2.2.1 污泥容積指數(Sludge Volume Index , SVI) 12
2.2.2 稀釋污泥容積指數(Diluted Sludge Volume Index , DSVI)
15
2.2.3 攪拌比容積指數(Stirred Specific Volume Index , SSVI)
16
2.2.4 各種方法的比較 19
2.3 污泥沉降之數學模式 20
2.3.1 沉降通量理論(Settling Flux Theory) 20
2.3.2 SVI與沉降性之關係 23
2.4 污泥沉降性監測工具 25
2.4.1 光學監測設備 25
2.4.2 影像分析工具 30
第三章 研究方法與設備 32
3.1 理論依據與假說 32
3.1.1 CFSBR系統理論污泥沉降型態 32
3.1.2 CFSBR系統污泥質量變化 33
3.1.3 CFSBR系統理論MLSS監測曲線 36
3.2 線上即時量測污泥沉降性方法之建立 37
3.3 研究設備及材料 39
3.3.1 連續流循序批分式活性污泥系統 39
3.3.2 實驗之分析設備與材料 49

第四章 結果與討論 56
4.1 污泥沉降性監測技術與數據分析結果 56
4.1.1 層沉降速度之量測 56
4.1.2 污泥氈體積之量測 59
4.2 馴養期污泥特性之分析 64
4.2.1 馴養期CFSBR系統污泥淨增殖情形 64
4.2.2 污泥沉降性與系統溶氧濃度之關係 67
4.2.3 污泥沉降性與系統處理效率之關係 72
4.3 穩定期(系統程式重建)污泥控制方法及其執行成效 75
4.3.1 沈澱排水相即時控制方法 75
4.3.2 系統污泥控制策略之擬定 77
4.3.3 系統污泥控制執行成效評估 81

第五章 結論與建議 86
5.1 結論 86
5.2 建議 87

參考文獻 88
附錄一 符號說明 92
附錄二 CFSBR自動控制系統 95
附錄三 CFSBR系統程式層邏輯圖 107
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