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研究生:羅俊宏
研究生(外文):Chung-Hong Lo
論文名稱:C波段主動式雷達校正器之研製與量測
論文名稱(外文):The Design and Measurement of C-Band Active Radar Calibrator
指導教授:陳錕山陳錕山引用關係
指導教授(外文):K. S. Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:通訊工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:86
中文關鍵詞:校正器雷達系統高頻衛星
外文關鍵詞:calibratorradarsystemRFsatelite
相關次數:
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本文發展主動式雷達校正器校正C-Band合成孔徑影像雷達系統,利用它對於兩顆C-Band的ERS-2與ENVISAT合成孔徑雷達衛星進行校正實驗[1]。2002年3月1日,歐洲太空總署發射了另一顆極軌道地球觀測衛星ENVISAT,它提供對於大氣、海洋、陸地、冰河的測量超過五年以上的觀測週期,ENVISAT上面搭載著新穎的籌載合成孔徑雷達系統,以確保對於即將完成任務的ERS-2能夠繼續延續觀測。主動雷達校正器的設計為利用兩支傳送天線同時產生垂直與水平極化的回波,為了進行輻射校正,對於主動式雷達校正器系統4 s的延遲時間、系統的增益(RCS=75.97dBm2)都經過精確的驗證。為了進行C-Band合成孔徑雷達校正實驗,本篇論文把主動雷達校正器佈置後從雷達影像上得到輻射校正係數(K)值,估算出精準的方位角與仰角,並從影像上檢查回波大小以及主動式雷達校正器佈置的位置,在影像上,預期延遲的點會依據主動式雷達校正器系統延遲的時間。所以此篇論文敘述有(1)主動式雷達校正器元件與延遲時間的一些系統特性測量。(2)經由處理完成影像上對於絕對校正參數(K)值的計算方法與結果。
This paper developed an Active Radar Calibrator to calibrate the C-band SAR imaging radar system, we carried out the design process of the Active Radar Calibrator (ARC) and calibration experiment of the C-band synthetic aperature radar (SAR) of both ERS-2 and ENVISAT. On I March 2002, the European Space Agency launched ENVISAT, an advanced polar-orbiting Earth observation satellite which will provide measurements of the atmosphere, ocean, land, and ice over a five year period. The ENVISAT satellite has an ambitious and innovative payload that will ensure the continuity of the data measurements of the ESA ERS satellite. The ARC is designed return both V and H radar signals with two transmission antennas and it was identified clearly including a 4 s delay and system gain(RCS=75.97dBm2) for radiometric calibration. For calibration of the C-band SAR, we have employed an ARC located in grassland near the Jhong-Ping elementary school in Chung-Li, Taiwan. We estimate the accurate azimuth and elevation angles in order to acquire the calibration constant (K) from the image data, we have examined image amplitude (date numbers) and locations of the ARC. It is seen in the SAR image, as expected, that the positions of the ARC delay points are shifted depending on the delay time.This paper describes (1) The ARC design process and laboratory measurement performed to characterize the hardware performance, with measurement of component and propagation delay. (2) the method and preliminary results of the calibration constant (K) from the image date.
第一章 緒論…………………………………………………1
1.1研究目的…………………………………………………1
1.2 文獻回顧…………………………………………………3
1.3 章節介紹…………………………………………………5

第二章 主動式雷達校正器之相關理論介紹………………7
2.1 衛星與地面設備通信鏈路之分析………………………7
2.1.1 天線增益………………………………………………7
2.1.2 有效全向輻射功率……………………………………8
2.1.3 自由空間傳播損耗Lf…………………………………8
2.1.4 大氣吸收損耗La………………………………………9
2.1.5 天線指向誤差損耗Lr…………………………………9
2.1.6 等效噪音溫度…………………………………………10
2.1.7 饋線與天線的噪音……………………………………11
2.1.8 衛星通信線路中的鏈路………………………………12
2.2 合成孔徑雷達訊號處理…………………………………15
2.2.1 斜距(Range)壓縮處理………………………………15
2.2.1.1 匹配濾波器…………………………………………16
2.2.1.2 參考函數及取視窗…………………………………20
2.2.2 方位(Azimuth)壓縮處理……………………………21
2.2.2.1 都卜勒變化及脈波壓縮……………………………22
2.3 雷達散射係數換算式……………………………………24
2.4 方位角及仰角……………………………………………30
2.4.1 計算方位角……………………………………………30
2.4.2 計算仰角………………………………………………32

第三章 主動式雷達校正器之實現…………………………34
3.1 設計目的…………………………………………………34
3.2 設計考量…………………………………………………35
3.2.1 判斷系統接收之功率值………………………………35
3.2.2 判斷系統之整體增益…………………………………39
3.3 系統架構…………………………………………………40
3.4 主動式雷達校正器之內部模組…………………………43
3.4.1 天線……………………………………………………43
3.4.2 功率分配器……………………………………………44
3.4.3 濾波器…………………………………………………44
3.4.4 混波器…………………………………………………45
3.4.5 放大器…………………………………………………51
3.5 電路佈局與外部機構設計………………………………52
3.6 主動式雷達校正器及角反射器野外施測步驟…………52
3.6.1 選定衛載經過施測的地點、接收時間、方位角與
仰角……………………………………………………52
3.6.2主動式雷達校正器及角反射於實驗場地之架設、
安裝……………………………………………………58
3.6.3角反射器之設計………………………………………59

第四章 主動式雷達校正器之實驗結果……………………62
4.1 整體系統於實驗室之量測結果………………………62
4.1.1 整體系統增益測試…………………………………62
4.1.1.1 階段增益量測……………………………………62
4.1.1.2 整體系統增益量測………………………………65
4.1.2 整體系統增益步階及延遲時間測試結果…………67
4.1.2.1 使用網路分析儀量測……………………………67
4.1.2.2 使用示波器量測…………………………………71
4.2 整體系統於影像量測之結果…………………………74
4.2.1 影像上之輻射校正結果……………………………74
4.2.2 影像上之幾何校正結果…………………77

第五章 結論與展望…………………………………………80
5.1 結論……………………………………………………80
5.2 展望……………………………………………………82

參考文獻……………………………………………………84
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