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研究生:蘇培智
研究生(外文):Pei-Chih Su
論文名稱:基於藉語音再取樣萃取共振峰變化之聲調調整技術
論文名稱(外文):Pitch-Scale Modification Based on Formant Extraction from Resampled Speech
指導教授:張寶基
指導教授(外文):Pao-Chi Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:通訊工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:89
中文關鍵詞:共振峰再取樣語音分析/合成聲調調整基頻諧波基頻週期同步線性預測編碼
外文關鍵詞:dual-resamplingpitch harmonicPitch-scale modificationanalysis-synthesisformant extraction
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
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語音聲調調整(pitch-scale modification)可以改變語音的音色以及聲調高低,讓原本平凡單調的聲音變得豐富有趣,也可以做為保密隱私之應用,或是結合其他語音分析/合成(analysis-synthesis)技術,讓語音處理的應用變得更多元化。
使用線性預測編碼(Linear Prediction Coding,LPC)的分析/合成方式,能夠獲得語音重要的基本組成,包括LPC係數及殘餘訊號;前者與語音訊號的頻譜包絡線(spectral envelope)有關,一般也稱之為共振峰(formant),而後者主要為語音頻譜上的基頻諧波(pitch harmonic)成分。藉由調整這些特徵,可以有效地改變合成語音的特性。然而一般由LPC極點調整共振峰的方式,容易破壞原本的共振峰結構,進而造成語音品質下降。因此本論文提出利用兩組不同比例之再取樣,分別萃取語音訊號的共振峰變化以及基頻週期改變後的殘餘訊號,經LPC合成濾波器得到調整過的語音,最後結合基頻週期同步(pitch synchronization)及音框邊界補償機制,確保合成語音的品質。經由模擬實驗的結果證實,藉由不同之再取樣比例能夠有效地控制語音的音色及聲調高低變化,而合成語音的品質亦令人滿意。
Pitch-scale modification that can change the tone and the prosody of speech is useful in privacy protection and entertainment. One of the approaches for pitch-scale modification is the analysis-synthesis method. It has the freedom for synthesizing arbitrary voice once the speech parameters such as LPC coefficients and residual signal are obtained.
In this paper we propose a pitch-scale modification method based on formant extraction from resampled speech. The formant, which is the spectrum envelope of speech signal, can be extracted by LPC analysis, and this procedure, so-called de-formant, eliminates the short-term correlation incurred by vocal tract filter. The frequency response of LPC synthesis filter determines the timbre of synthesized speech. The residual signal mainly consists of long-term components, the pitch harmonic, which determines the tone of speech and can be easily modified by using the resampling technique. A dual-resampling mechanism is used to obtain the modified formant and modified pitch harmonic, respectively. The pitch-scale modification mentioned above is only performed in voiced frames because they have high energy and are relatively stable. And the cross-correlation coefficients are calculated to locate the synchronization point, i.e., the pitch mark. Experimental results show that the speech can be successfully modified to different timbre and tone with high quality.
中文摘要 …………………………………………………… I
Abstract …………………………………………………… II
目錄 ………………………………………………………… III
附圖索引 …………………………………………………… VI
附表索引 …………………………………………………… IX

第一章 緒論 ……………………………………………… 1
1.1 研究動機 ……………………………………………… 1
1.2 論文架構 ……………………………………………… 2

第二章 語音變換技術的發展 …………………………… 5
2.1 語音變換的發展與應用 ……………………………… 5
2.2 語音變換技術的基本概念 …………………………… 6
2.3 本音調調整技術的系統架構 ………………………… 8

第三章 語音變換技術的簡介 …………………………… 15
3.1 語音的特性 …………………………………………… 15
3.2 語音變換技術 ………………………………………… 18
3.2.1 語音速度調整技術 ………………………………… 18
3.2.2 語音聲調調整技術 ………………………………… 20
3.3 線性預測編碼 ………………………………………… 27
3.4 基頻週期分析 ………………………………………… 31
3.4.1 平均振幅差分函數 ………………………………… 32
3.4.2 循環式平均振幅差分函數 ………………………… 34
3.5 語音品質評估方法 …………………………………… 35

第四章 基於再取樣法之語音聲調調整技術 …………… 37
4.1 基頻調整 ……………………………………………… 38
4.2 共振峰調整 …………………………………………… 41
4.2.1 利用不同比例之再取樣萃取共振峰結構 ………… 45
4.3 本論文之聲調調整系統 ……………………………… 43
4.3.1 基頻週期的估計 …………………………………… 47
4.3.2 有聲/無聲的決策 ………………………………… 48
4.3.3 有聲/無聲過渡區 ………………………………… 51
4.3.4 線性預測編碼分析 ………………………………… 53
4.3.5 基頻週期標記的收尋 ……………………………… 54
4.3.6 截取分析音框長度 ………………………………… 58
4.3.7 搜尋基頻週期同步位置 …………………………… 60
4.3.8 音框邊界補償 ……………………………………… 64
4.4 語音聲調調整 ………………………………………… 69
4.4.1 語音聲調調高 ……………………………………… 69
4.4.2 語音聲調調低 ……………………………………… 72

第五章 模擬實驗與品質評估 …………………………… 74
5.1 模擬環境及語音資料 ………………………………… 74
5.2 不同比例之共振峰調整結果 ………………………… 74
5.3 語音變換的品質評估 ………………………………… 80
5.4.1 語音聲調調高的品質評估 ………………………… 81
5.4.2 語音聲調調低的品質評估 ………………………… 82
5.3 語音品質分析與討論 ………………………………… 84

第六章 結論 ……………………………………………… 86

參考文獻 …………………………………………………… 87
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