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研究生:謝祥宏
研究生(外文):Shieh Shyang Horng
論文名稱:國小自然科教師評量信念對學生學習影響之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Influences of Elementary Science Teachers’Beliefs about Assessment on Students’Science Learning
指導教授:段曉林段曉林引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsiao-Lin Tuan
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:科學教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:201
中文關鍵詞:自然教師科學態度評量知覺評量信念評量實務國小學科評量知識
外文關鍵詞:science teacherattitudes toward scienceperception toward assessmentbeliefs about assessmentassessment practiceElementary schoolsubject assessment knowledge
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本研究之目的在於探討國小自然教師評量信念對學生學習之影響,研究採「質」、「量」合併的方法,以探討國小自然科教師所呈現的評量實務、評量信念取向、評量信念取向與教學行為的關係、評量信念對學生評量知覺之影響、評量信念對學生對科學的態度之影響。
研究方式以教室觀察、晤談、文件分析、蒐集學生對教師評量知覺等質性研究方式,探討三位國小自然科教師所呈現之評量實務、評量實務、評量信念取向、評量信念取向與教學行為的關係。此外應用「學生對科學之態度量表」及自編發展「學生評量知覺量表」兩項工具,輔以期末半結構式晤談,以瞭解自然教師的評量信念對學生評量知覺與對科學的態度影響。研究結果如下:
一、國小自然教師所展現之評量實務
本研究之個案教師之評量實務,歸納成以下研究結果:1.個案教師展現不同評量特質,A教師較傾向建構取向評量,B教師傾向傳統取向評量,C教師則介呼兩者之間。2.個案教師以內容向度的評量方式較多。3.教學過程中的評量方式以口頭回答為主。4.同一位教師在不同年級所設計之評量大致相同。5.個案教師使用相同的評量方式,但展現不同的內涵。6.不同評量知識、學科知識、學科評量知識背景之教師,展現不同的評量方式。
二、國小自然教師之所展現之評量信念
本研究之個案教師之評量信念,歸納如下研究結果:
1.評量相關文件分析中,所展現的評量信念包括:回饋取向、過程技能取
向、分數取向、態度取向、激勵取向、公平取向、知識取向、合作取
向。
2.「教學過程」中所展現的評量信念包括:科學知識建構取向、知識取
向、分數取向、激勵取向、理解取向、控制取向、懲罰取向、多元取
向。
三、評量信念與師生互動具有一定關係
評量信念展現較傾向於評量內容向度者,師生互動較傾向極端教師中心;評量信念展現較傾向於評量策略、評分目的者,師生互動較傾向是學生為中心。
四、評量信念對學生評量知覺的影響
在自然教師評量信念對學生評量知覺的影響方面,結果顯示:1.回饋評量信念對學生評量知覺具正向影響。2.分數取向評量信念教師,影響學生傾向分數取向評量知覺。3.科學過程技能取向評量信念對學生評量知覺具正向影響。
五、回饋取向評量信念對學生科學態度具正向影響
在自然教師評量信念對「學生對科學的態度」之影響上,研究則顯示回饋取向評量信念對學生對科學的態度具正向影響。
本研究從三位自然教師評量信念的研究顯示,教師的評量信念對學生評量知覺、學生對科學態度產生影響。最後,本研究針對教師評量信念的研究、學生評量知覺工具、師資培育提出建議。
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of three science teachers’ beliefs about assessment on elementary students’ science learning. Both qualitative and quantitative methods was used to explore science teachers’ assessment practice, beliefs about assessment, relationships between beliefs about assessment and student-teacher interactions, the influence of science teachers’ beliefs about assessment on elementary students’ perception to science assessment and attitudes toward science scale.
Qualitative data collection from classroom observation, interview and document analysis were used to investigate science teachers’ assessment practice, beliefs about assessment, and relationships between beliefs about assessment and student-teacher interactions. Quantitative data from the questionnaires of student''s perception toward science assessment (SPTSA) and attitudes toward science scale (ATSS) were used to investigate students’ perception towards science assessment and attitudes toward science.
The findings of this study could be summarized as followings:
1. Three science teachers’ science assessment practice:
a.Science teachers expressed different assessment
characteristics: teacher A expressed constructivism
orientation, teacher B expressed tradition orientations and
teacher C was in between constructivism and tradition
assessment.
b.Three science teachers concerned most in content dimension.
c.During classroom science teaching, oral response assessment
was used most often by three teachers.
d.The same teacher tended to used same assessment strategies
to different graders.
e.Although three science teachers used the same assessment
strategies, but the substances of the assessment were
different.
f.Science teachers with different background of assessment
knowledge, subject knowledge and subject assessment
knowledge, they expressed different ways of assessment.
2.Three science teachers’ beliefs about science assessment
consisted of science process skill orientation, science
knowledge orientation, hard working orientation, multifaceted
orientation, feedback orientation, grading orientation,
encourage orientation.
3.The relationships between science teachers’ beliefs about
assessment and their teaching practice indicated that when
teacher’s beliefs about assessment focused on strategy
oriented, then student-teacher in his classroom interaction
tended to be student-centered. When teacher’s beliefs about
assessment is content oriented, then the student-teacher
interaction tended to be teacher-centered.
4.The influence of science teachers’ beliefs about assessment
on elementary student’s perception to science assessment and
attitudes toward science scale are as follows:
a.The teacher’s feedback orientation of beliefs about
assessment has much positive influence on students’
perception of science assessment.
b.The teacher’s grading orientation of beliefs about
assessment influenced students’ perception of science
assessment toward grading orientation.
c.The teachers’ science process approach orientation of
beliefs about assessment has much positive influence on
student’s perception of science assessment.
d.The teacher’s feedback orientation of beliefs about
assessment has much positive influence on student’s
attitudes toward science.
5.Although three science teachers used same assessment methods,
but their underneath beliefs are different.
The result of this study indicated that science teachers’ beliefs about assessment have great influence on students’ perception toward the assessment about science learning and attitudes toward science. Based on the findings, this study also provides suggestions for future study in teacher’s beliefs about science assessment and teacher education.
目 次
第壹章 緒 論‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥01
第一節 研究背景與重要性‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥02
第二節 研究理念‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥04
第三節 研究目的與待答問題‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥06
第四節 名詞釋義‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥07
第貳章 文獻探討‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥08
第一節 評量的本質‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥08
第二節 評量信念的意義‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥14
第三節 教師評量信念之實徵性研究‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥18
第四節 學生評量知覺之實徵性研究‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥26
第五節 評量與教學關係之相關研究‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥31
第六節 評量方式對教學與學習的影響‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥37
第七節 教師評量能力相關研究‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥41
第八節 結語:對本研究之啟示‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥44
第參章 研究方法‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥47
第一節 研究樣本之選取‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥47
第二節 學生對自然科評量知覺量表之發展‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥49
第三節 學生對科學的態度量表之施測‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥60
第四節 資料分析‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥61
第五節 研究流程‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥66
第肆章 研究結果與討論‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥69
第一節 研究情境‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥69
第二節 個案教師評量實務‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥72
第三節 科學教師所展現的評量信念‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥95
第四節 科學教師的評量信念與師生互動之關係 ‥‥‥‥‥‥119
第五節 科學教師的評量信念對學生評量知覺之影響‥z‥‥‥129
第六節 科學教師的評量信念對學生對科學的態度之影響 ‥‥141
第伍章 結論與建議 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥152
第一節 結 論 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥152
第二節 建 議 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥157
參考文獻 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥159
圖 次
圖1-1-1教師評量信念對學生學習影響之相關變項關係圖‥‥‥06
圖2-1-1評量相關議題‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥10
圖2-5-1形成性評量的模式‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥34
圖2-8-1教師評量信念相關因素之探討‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥44
圖3-2-1開放式問卷分析流程圖‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥51
圖3-2-2量表建構統計分析流程‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥54
圖3-2-3國小學生對自然科評量知覺量表效化過程‥‥‥‥‥‥55
圖3-4-1錄影帶分析摘要表轉換成 Excel 2002處理情形 ‥‥‥64
圖3-5-1國小自然教師評量信念對學生影響之研究流程‥‥‥‥67
圖4-0-1教師評量信念對學生學習影響之分析架構‥‥‥‥‥‥69
圖4-2-1 A、B、C教師在科學過程技能評量之設計次數比較‥‥76
圖4-2-2 A教師小組合作績效文件‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥77
圖4-2-3 C教師四年級小組合作績效文件‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥77
圖4-2-4 A教師對於小組合作的績效文件‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥78
圖4-2-5 A教師對於習作評分文件‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥80
圖4-2-6 C教師對於資料蒐集評分之文件掃瞄圖‥‥‥‥‥‥‥82
圖4-2-7 C教師對於資料蒐集評語之分析圖‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥82
圖4-2-8 A教師利用學生上課實驗時所完成的數據命題‥‥‥‥85
圖4-2-9教師教學過程評量方式分析架圖‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥91
圖4-3-1教師 C於實作評量文件中所展現之SPS取向之評量信念 96
圖4-3-2教師 A於學期成績評量文件中所展現之「努力取向」
量信念‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥97
圖4-3-3教師B於學期成績評量文件中所展現之「努力取向」
評量信念‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥98
圖4-3-4教師C五年級學期成績評量文件中所展現之「努力取向」
評量信念‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥98
圖4-3-5教師C四年級學期成績評量文件中所展現之「努力取向」
評量信念‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥99
圖4-3-6教師A於習作文件中所展現之「客觀取向」之評量信念100
圖4-3-7教師A於習作文件中所展現之「客觀取向」之評量信念101
圖4-3-8教師C於文件中所展現之「客觀取向」之評量信念‥‥102
圖4-3-9教師A所展現之「回饋取向」評量信念‥‥‥‥‥‥‥104
圖4-3-10教師C於「資料蒐集作業」中所展現之回饋取向評量
信念 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥105
圖4-3-11國小自然科教師評量信念架構圖‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥113
圖4-3-12 A教師評量信念‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥114
圖4-3-13 B教師評量信念‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥115
圖4-3-14 C教師在四年級所展現之評量信念‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥116
圖4-3-15 C教師在五年級所展現之評量信念‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥117
圖4-4-1教師教學過程中師生互動方式分析架圖 ‥‥‥‥‥‥119
圖4-5-1 C教師與B教師之四年級學生對於相同試卷之知覺比較132
圖4-5-2學生對於教師教學重視情形分析圖 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥138
圖4-5-3學生對於教師評量使用情形分析圖 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥139
圖4-6-1個案教師所任教學生對科學的態度之前後測比較圖 ‥142
圖4-6-2個案教師所任教學生對上自然課感覺之比較圖 ‥‥‥151
圖5-2-1評量知識、學科知識、學科評量知識三者關係 ‥‥‥154
表 次
表2-1-1傳統派典與建構主義派典比較‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥10
表2-1-2評量標準的改變‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥13
表2-3-1教師的評量信念取向‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥24
表2-4-1學生對於「評量知覺」構念分析摘要表‥‥‥‥‥‥‥30
表2-5-1形成性評量的過程‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥36
表3-1-1研究教師一覽表‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥48
表3-1-2研究學生樣本分佈一覽表‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥49
表3-2-1學生對於自然科評量知覺量表開放式問卷設計架構摘
要表‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥50
表3-2-2開放式問題之Kappa一致性係數考驗 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥51
表3-2-3學生對於「評分」之知覺類別分析‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥53
表3-2-4學生對自然科評量知覺研究樣本‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥53
表3-2-5學生對自然科評量知覺量表向度及試題範例‥‥‥‥‥54
表3-2-6國小學生對於自然科評量知覺問卷各試題-分量表(ris)
和試題-總分量表(rit)及剔除該試題後的Cronbachα係
數值‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥57
表3-2-7國小學生對自然評量知覺量表信度一覽表(正式)‥‥58
表3-2-8國小學生對於自然科評量知覺問卷的因素分析 (經
Varimax )轉軸 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥59
表3-2-9國小學生對於自然科評量知覺問卷與學生對科學態度之
相關‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥60
表3-3-1國小學生對科學態度量表(ATSS)試題範例‥‥‥‥‥‥61
表3-3-2國小學生對科學態度量表信度一覽表‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥61
表3-4-1質性資料蒐集一覽表‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥62
表3-4-2教師評量信念錄影帶分析摘要表‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥63
表4-1-1研究對象任教年級一覽表‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥70
表4-2-1個案教師文件中評量方式與出現頻率一覽表‥‥‥‥‥74
表4-2-2教師所展現之「過程技能取向的評量」分析‥‥‥‥‥75
表4-2-3教師A評語類別次數分析一覽表 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥81
表4-2-4個案教師紙筆評量分類之Kappa一致性係數考驗 ‥‥‥83
表4-2-5個案教師定期紙筆評量內容一覽表‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥84
表4-2-6個案教師教學過程中評量方式一覽表‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥90
表4-2-7個案教師教學過程中所展現評量向度次數比較表‥‥‥92
表4-3-1個案教師於文件分析中所展現的評量信念一覽表‥‥‥95
表4-3-2個案教師所展現的評量信念次數比較表 ‥‥‥‥‥‥110
表4-3-3個案教師教學時間與所展現的評量信念時間長短比較
表 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥111
表4-3-4個案教師所展現的評量信念時間比較表 ‥‥‥‥‥‥112
表4-3-5 A、B、C教師評量信念展現之比較摘要表 ‥‥‥‥‥117
表4-4-1個案教師所展現師生互動次數比較 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥128
表4-4-2個案教師展現的師生互動與評量信念關係 ‥‥‥‥‥128
表4-5-1個案教師對「學生自然科評量知覺」總量表影響之單
因子變異數分析及事後比較 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥134
表4-5-2個案教師對「學生自然科評分知覺」影響之單因子變
異數分析及事後比較 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥135
表4-5-3個案教師對「學生自然科評量內容知覺」影響之單因
子變異數分析及事後比較 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥136
表4-5-4個案教師對「學生自然科評分目的知覺」影響之單因
子變異數分析及事後比較 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥137
表4-5-5個案教師對「學生自然科評量偏好知覺」影響之單因
子變異數分析及事後比較 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥137
表4-6-1個案教師學生對科學的態度之前、後測比較分析 ‥‥141
表4-6-2不同教師「學生對科學的態度」回歸係數同質性考驗
摘要表 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥143
表4-6-3不同教師「學生對科學的態度」共變數分析及事後比
較摘要表 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥143
表4-6-4比較係數摘要表 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥144
表4-6-5不同教師評量回饋策略對學生「對科學的態度
(ATSS)」之單因子變異數分析‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥145
表4-6-6各比較係數之T檢定摘要表‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥145
表4-6-7不同教師評量回饋策略對學生「對科學的態度(ATS)
分量表」之單因子變異數分析 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥146
表4-6-8各比較係數之T檢定摘要表‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥146
表4-6-9不同教師評量回饋策略對學生「對學習科學的態度
(ATLS)」之單因子變異數分析‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥147
表4-6-10比較係數之T檢定摘要表 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥147
表4-6-11同教師評量回饋策略對學生「對參與科學探究活動的
態度(ATPIS)」之單因子變異數分析 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥148
表4-6-12各比較係數之T檢定摘要表 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥148
表4-6-13不同教師評量回饋策略對學生「對科學家、科學生
涯的態度(ATSC)」之單因子變異數分析‥‥‥‥‥‥149
表4-6-14各比較係數之T檢定摘要表 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥149
表4-6-15不同回饋評量信念對學生對科學態度影響比較摘要表149
附 錄
附錄一 學生期末開放式問卷 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥169
附錄二 紙筆評量分析摘要一覽表 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥170
附錄三 學生對自然科評量知覺晤談摘要 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥186
附錄四 學生對自然科評量知覺之晤談卷 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥189
附錄五 A教師學生對自然科評量知覺晤談結果轉錄‥‥‥‥‥191
附錄六 B教師學生對自然科評量知覺晤談結果轉錄‥‥‥‥‥196
附錄七 國小學生「對科學的態度量表」授權使用同意書 ‥‥201
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