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研究生:賴怡君
論文名稱:大學英文作文教師信念與實踐之研究
論文名稱(外文):A study of college English writing teachers' beliefs and practices
指導教授:曾守得曾守得引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:英文作文教師信念
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中文摘要
本研究旨在探討大學英文作文老師的信念與實踐。更具體的說,本研究企圖辨析大學英文作文教師對於身為教學者與學習者的信念,以及他們的信念對於英文寫作教學的影響。本研究採用深度訪談法來收集資料,包括老師們對於自己信念與實踐的陳述,對於自身課堂經驗的評價,以及對於教學成果的自評。訪談對象為二十五位大學英文作文教師,其中有九位來自北台灣,九位來自中台灣,七位來自南台灣。收集到的資料均予以錄音,並轉成文字稿加以分析。
根據發現,老師們的信念主要源自:(a)對於先前學習經驗的印象,(b)對於台灣英文寫作教學課程的印象,(c)對於英文作文教學法的印象,以及(d)對於身為英作文教室教師,及對於大學生的印象。這些印象、教師的信念系統,以及他們的教學實踐之間,有著緊密的互動關係。
本研究主要發現如下: 第一,先前學習經驗的印象對於這些老師的信念有著很大的影響。無論這些老師對先前的學習經驗所持的態度為何,他們都會試著調整、採納優點部份,或是儘量提升教學品質。此外,缺乏足夠的職前、在職訓練,在某個程度上,似乎也造成了教學上的困境。
第二, 關於台灣英文寫作教學課程的印象,本研究發現幾所大學英文系都有自己的英文寫作教學計劃。在這些系所的教師當中,相較於其他系所,編號II大學的教師對於他們自己的計畫,持較肯定的態度。此外,他們也強調設計優良教科書的重要角色。
第三是這些教師對於英文寫作教學的印象。對於六種教學活動的效能,他們認為師生面談最受肯定,同儕或小組修改,以及腦力激盪較常被使用。相較於前三種活動,教師也常使用札記寫作,檔案評量及網路。透過課堂實踐,這些教師偏愛的教學技巧也證實了它們的實用性。這些技巧可分成五大類:(a)主題搜索,(b)概念形成,(c)策略發展—組織資料或資訊,(d)團體動力,以及(e)其他偏愛的技巧。
第四是這些教師對於身為英作文教室教師,及對於大學生的印象。本研究發現理想的英文作文教師具備下列特質與能力:(a)根據情境作調整以產生有潛力的解決之道,(b)聆聽各種聲音,持續地反思與學習,(c)建立、提升可信度的才能與人格特質,(d)訴諸情感, 以傳達期望與信心,及誘發動機,(e)清楚知會學生課程目標 、內容和審慎執行,以及(f)具備耐心與包容雅量。教師們建議可管控理想的班級人數與提供充足
iii
的職前與在職訓練,來減輕老師們沉重的負擔,以利於提升英文作文教學的品質。
根據研究結果,本研究建議教師專業成長的推動需要更多的關注、支持。再者,教學品質的提升需要英文作文教師的合作,尋求更適切的方法,這些方法可以更有效地滿足英文作文教室的需要。最後,英文作文老師需要更多啟發性、建設性的意見,來成就一套完整的教學哲學及方法,以彈性因應不同的教學情境。
Abstract
The study aimed to explore college English writing teachers’ beliefs and practices. To be more specific, it attempted to identify the beliefs of university English writing teachers about their roles as teachers and learners, as well as the influences of their beliefs on their English writing instruction. The in-depth interview method was employed to collect the data about the teachers’ descriptions of their beliefs and practices, justifications of their classroom experiences, and self–evaluations of their instructional outcomes. Twenty-five university English writing teachers were interviewed, with nine from northern Taiwan, nine from central Taiwan, and seven from southern Taiwan. The data collected were audiotaped and transcribed for analysis.
It was found that teachers’ beliefs were recognized to mainly originate from their (a) images of prior learning experiences, (b) images of English writing curriculum in Taiwan, (c) images of English writing teaching methods, and (d) images of self as teacher in English writing classroom and college students. From the framework, close interaction was found among those images, teachers’ beliefs systems, and their instructional practices.
The major findings were summarized as follows: First, the images of prior learning experiences were found to have powerful impacts on the teachers’ beliefs about English writing teachers and teaching. Whatever attitudes the teachers held towards their previous learning, they were found to try to adapt the strengths of their prior learning or to promote the qualities of their instruction. Besides, the lack of sufficient pre-service and in-service trainings, to certain extent, also seemed to lead to teaching predicaments.
Second, concerning the teachers’ images of English writing curriculum in Taiwan, several university English departments had their own English writing instruction programs. Among the teachers in the departments, the teachers of University II were found to hold much more affirmative attitudes towards their program than the others. Furthermore, the significant role of well-designed textbook was also emphasized.
Third, concerning the teachers’ images of English writing teaching methods, six activities’ potentials in use,teacher-student conferencing (most favored), peer or group review, and brainstorming were found to be employed much more often than journal writing, portfolio, and internet use. The teachers’ preferred teaching techniques were proved useful through their classroom practices. They were divided into five major categories: (a) topic hunting, (b) ideas
i
generating, (c) strategy development for organizing materials or information, (d) group dynamics, and (e) other preferences.
Fourth, concerning the teachers’ images of self as teacher in English writing classrooms and college students, the characteristics/capabilities of an ideal English writing teacher were categorized into: (a) situational adaptation--generating potential solutions, (b) continual reflection and learning--listening to voices, (c) building/enhancing credibility: competence and character, (d) emotional appeal: expressing expectancy and confidence, and sparking motivation, (e) course objectives/contents notice and careful implementation, and (f) patience and tolerance. And several measures were brought forth to reduce teachers’ heavy workload so as to enhance the quality of English writing instruction. The measures involved the considerations of: (a) ideal class size and class number, (b) sufficient pre-service or/and in-service trainings, and (c) other recommendations.
Based on the results, the study suggested that more concerns and supports should be given to propel teacher professional growth. Also, the enhancement of teaching quality required the cooperation of English writing teachers in seeking more proper ways to more effectively meet the needs of the English writing classrooms. Finally, more inspirational and constructive opinions were needed to reach a set of complete teaching philosophy and ways, more flexible to different instructional contexts.
Table of Contents
Abstract (English)………………………i
Abstract (Chinese)…………………………………………………………iii
Acknowledgements…………………………………………...v Table of Contents………………………………………..vi
List of Tables……………………………………………ix
List of Figures..………………………………………..x
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION…………………….…………1 Background of the study………………………………1
Research questions………………………………3
Definitions of the terms……………………...4
Significance of the study…………………….5
CHAPTER II.
LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………...6
Research on composition instruction………6
English writing instruction in Taiwan……8
Approaches and guidelines/principles…..8
Issues in Taiwan’s English writing instruction………11
Research on the beliefs of English teachers in Taiwan…14
Teacher cognition/beliefs and its changes…………………19
Research on teacher cognition…………………..………19
Teachers’ beliefs systems…..…………………………20


Changes in teachers’ beliefs……………………………21
Wring teachers’ beliefs and practices...24
The relationships between teachers’ beliefs and practices……………….24 The construction process of writing instructors’ beliefs and practices…..25
Training programs and teacher voices…..……………………………….27
Writing instructors and training programs……………………………….27
Voices in writing teachers’ reflection…………………………………….29
Summary……..…………………………………………………………..30
CHAPETR III. METHODOLOGY……………………………………………………..32
Participants……………………………………………………………..32
Instruments……………………….…………………………………….33
Procedures for data collection……….…………………………………34
Procedures for data analysis………………………………………………………………...35
CHAPTER IV. RESULTS……………………………………………………………...37
Images of Prior Learning Experiences………………………………...37
Images of College English Writing Curriculum in Taiwan……………46
Images of English Writing Teaching Methods…….…………………..54
Images of Self as Teacher in English Writing Classroom and College Students….72
Summary……..……………………………………………………………………85
CHAPTER V. CONCLUSION……………………………………………….…………..87

Summary of the findings…………………………………………………...87
Discussions………………………………………………………………...90
Pedagogical implications………………………………………………….94
Limitations of the study…………………………………………………...95
Suggestions for future studies………………………………………….....96
References………..………………………………………………………98
Appendices……………………………………………………………...113
Appendix A The Interview Guide……………………………………113
Appendix B Quotations From Interview Transcripts in Chinese…….115
Appendix C Evaluation Forms……………………………………….135
Appendix D A Collection of Recommended Resources……………..137
Appendix E List of Tables.…………………………………………..146
List of Tables
Table 4.1 Background Information of Teacher Participants………..147
Table 4.2 The Five Hotly-Discussed Activities……………………148
Table 4.3 Preferred Teaching Techniques...………………………..149
Table 4.4 Characteristics/Capabilities of An Ideal English Writing Teacher..150
List of Figure
Figure 1 A Framework of Interaction Between Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices…18
Figure 2 A Revised Framework of Interaction Between Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices..91
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