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研究生:王瓊珊
研究生(外文):Cyong-shan Wang
論文名稱:目標設定對於國中生自我效能及英語學習影響之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Goal Setting on Junior High School Students’ Self-Efficacy and English Learning
指導教授:張善貿張善貿引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shanmao F. Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:英語研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
中文關鍵詞:目標設定目標投入自我效能
外文關鍵詞:goal settinggoal commitmentself-efficacy
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本研究的目的在於探討目標設定方式對於國中生英語單字學習及自我效能之影響。同時也檢視影響目標達成的兩要素:學習持續力與目標投入。本研究採準實驗設計輔以問卷調查法。研究對象為2班共74位國中二年級學生:一班為指定目標;一班為無目標設定。研究工具包括研究者自編的單字測驗、自我效能量表、目標投入量表和自編目標設定問卷等。單字測驗的內容選自教育部公佈之常用一千單字。兩班同時接受單字前後測及自我效能評量。指定目標的班級再填寫目標投入量表及目標設定問卷。資料收集後進行t考驗和皮爾遜積差相關等量化分析。
本研究發現指定目標的學生比無目標設定的學生在英語單字學習成效上有較好的表現且有較高的自我效能及較長的學習持續力。目標達成學生與目標未達成學生在學習持續力方面沒有顯著的差異,但目標達成學生比目標未達成學生有較高的目標投入。
根據本研究的發現提出以下建議以供教學之參考。目標設定可有效提昇學生英語單字學習成就。此外目標設定可滿足不同程度及不同動機的學生並引發其學習動機及增加學習持續力,因此此方式可廣泛實施於英語教室中。老師根據學生程度指定明確、具挑戰性的近程學習目標。目標設定要成功需提高目標投入。目標達成之後能使學生獲得心理的滿足及增加自我效能。自我效能會影響學生學習活動的選擇,努力的程度及學習持續力,進而影響學習成就。藉由目標的達成增加成功的經驗,可以有計劃的提昇學生的自我效能。

The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the intervention effects of goal setting upon junior high school students’ English vocabulary learning and their perceived self-efficacy toward English. This study also explored the two factors that affect goal achievement: persistence and goal commitment. The participants were 74 second grade students that comprised two complete classes. One class received “assigned goals”; the other class received “no goals.” The instruments in the current study included vocabulary tests, Questionnaire on Self-efficacy, Questionnaire on Goal Commitment and Goal-setting Questionnaire. The testing materials were selected from the most frequent 1000 words declared by the Ministry of Education. Both groups were asked to fill out the pre-and post- vocabulary tests as well as Questionnaire on Self-efficacy. After the intervention of goal setting, the assigned goal group was asked to complete Questionnaire on Goal Commitment and Goal-setting Questionnaire. The data were analyzed by t-test and Pearson product-moment correlation.
Results revealed that the students in the goal-setting group performed significantly better on vocabulary learning than those in the no-goal group did. In addition, the goal-setting students had higher self-efficacy and lengthened persistence. No significant difference existed between the goal-achieved students and the goal-not-achieved students in terms of persistence, but the goal-achieved students had higher goal commitment than the goal-not-achieved students.
Based upon the above findings, some pedagogical implications are provided. Goal setting functioned well in improving English vocabulary learning. In addition, goal setting can meet the individual’ differences in terms of English proficiency and motivation. Therefore, it is recommended that the technique should be widely applied in English classrooms. Teachers could assign their students specific, challenging and proximal goal. Goal setting influenced performance only when the individual was committed to the goal. Self-efficacy affects individuals’ choice of activities, effort and persistence, and in turn, affects academic performance. Self-efficacy could be enhanced with plans in schools, such as through assigning goals conveying information about self-efficacy, or through experiencing the success of attaining goals. Mastery experience could raise students’ perceived self-efficacy.

Table of Contents


Abstract (Chinese)……………………………………………………………… i
Abstract (English)……………………………………………………………… ii
Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………… iv
Table of Contents………………………………………………………………… vi
List of Tables…………………………………………………………………….. x
List of Figures…………………………………………………………………… xii
Chapter I. Introduction………………………………………………………… 1
Background and Rationale…………………………………………………… 1
Purpose and Research Questions of the Study………………………………... 5
Significance of the Study……………………………………………………... 6
Definitions of Terms…………………………………………………………... 7
Chapter II. Literature Review………………………………………………… 9
Motivation, Goal Setting and Self-Efficacy…………………………………... 9
Goal Setting Theory…………………………………………………………... 13
Attributes of Goals……………………………………………………….. 15
Properties of Goals……………………………………………………….. 16
Goal Mechanisms…………………………………………………………. 18

Goal Commitment…………………………………………………………... 20
Goal Sources….. ……………………………………………………………. 25
The Influence of Goal Setting in Learning Contexts and Relevant Studies… 27
Procedures of Goal Setting………………………………………………….. 30
Self-Efficacy Theory……………………………………………………………. 31
Sources of Self-efficacy…………………………………………………….. 34
Dimensions of Self-efficacy………………………………………………... 37
The Influence of Self-efficacy on Academic Learning and Relevant Studies 39
Summary………………………………………………………………………… 43
Chapter III. Method……………………………………………………………… 44
Subject Selection………………………………………………………………... 44
Instrumentation………………………………………………………………….. 46
Testing Materials…………………………………………….……………… 46
Questionnaire on Self-efficacy and Persistence…………………………….. 46
Questionnaire on Goal Commitment………………………………………... 47
Goal-setting Questionnaire…………………………………………………. 50
Procedures and Data Collection………………………………………………… 50
Data Analysis……………………………………………………………………. 51


Chapter IV. Results………………………………………………………………. 53
Results of Goal Setting on Vocabulary Learning……………………………….. 53
Results of Goal Setting on Development of Perceived Self-Efficacy………….. 56
Results of Goal Setting on Persistence………………………………………….. 60
Students’ Persistence……………………………………………………………. 61
Students’ Goal Commitment……………………………………………………. 62
Results of Goal-Setting Questionnaire………………………………………….. 63
Demographic Information of the Subjects…………………………………… 64
Effectiveness of Goal Setting………………………………………………… 64
Sources of Goal Commitment………………………………………………... 69
Application of Goal Setting………………………………………………….. 72
Chapter V. Discussions and Conclusion………………………………………… 77
Discussions of the Major Findings……………………………………………… 77
Pedagogical Implications……………………………………………………….. 87
Limitations of the Study………………………………………………………… 90
Suggestions for Future Research………………………………………………... 92
References………………………………………………………………………… 94
Appendices………………………………………………………………………… 112
Appendix A-1 Questionnaire on Self-efficacy (Chinese Version)……………… 112
Appendix A-2 Questionnaire on Self-efficacy (English Version)………………. 114
Appendix B-1 Questionnaire on Goal Commitment (Chinese Version)………... 116
Appendix B-2 Questionnaire on Goal Commitment (English Version)………… 117
Appendix C-1 Goal-Setting Questionnaire (Chinese Version)………………….. 118
Appendix C-2 Goal-Setting Questionnaire (English Version)………………….. 119
Appendix D Pretest……………………………………………………………… 120
Appendix E Posttest……………………………………………………………... 121
Appendix F Cheng’s Goal Commitment Questionnaire………………………… 122


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