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研究生:賴信安
研究生(外文):Hsin-An Lai
論文名稱:影像視覺伺服機械臂運動控制器之設計及製作
論文名稱(外文):Design and Implementation of a Robotic Motion Controller with Image-Based Visual Servo
指導教授:蕭瑛星
指導教授(外文):Ying-Shing Shiao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:機械臂控制器影像視覺伺服
外文關鍵詞:RobotControllerImage-Based visual servo
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本研究是利用影像處理技術及倒傳遞類神經網路(Back-Propagation Network)來辨識象棋的棋子類別與所在位置。棋盤上的棋子辨識的結果可以取代電腦滑鼠做為電腦象棋的輸入,將象棋程式輸出對奕的棋子走位命令,轉成機械臂各軸馬達的控制命令,配合視覺伺服來控制機械臂移動棋子,達到機械臂可以與人玩象棋的目的。機械臂視覺伺服控制的方法是;機械臂各軸的位置經Encoder及解碼電路由PC讀取,再與由機械視覺得到的控制命令比較,得到的誤差訊號用D/A卡輸出,經馬達驅動電路控制馬達驅動機械臂移動到命令的位置。本文以設計機械臂的影像視覺伺服控制器為研究重點,硬體部分包括機械臂的驅動系統的設計及製作,軟體部分除了視覺伺服訊號的影像處理之外,還有機械臂的運動規劃。最後用MITSUBISHI公司製造的RV-MII型機械臂為研究範例,設計出具有視覺可以與人下棋的機械臂。
Image processing algorithms and the back-propagation network (BPN) are employed to recognize and determine Chinese chessman patterns and their locations. This thesis proposes a vision system combined with robotic operations. An image-based visual device is used in place of a mouse is as the input device for a Chinese chess computer game. The chess game responses are converted to create robot joint movement commands using a visual servo to pick up and move the chess pieces. The proposed system allows a robot to play a chess game with a person. The manipulator control methods integrated with an image-based visual servo correct the errors between the joint angles, read by the PC through the encoders. The object position with respect to the manipulator hand, located by image processing, is used to accomplish specific chessman movements. The thesis proposes the design and implementation of a manipulator motion controller integrated with an image-based visual servo. The actuator drivers and pc interface circuits connected are implemented using hardware. The image processing algorithms and the trajectory planning calculations are implemented using software. The MITSUBISHI RV-MII robot is used to play a chess game with a person is illustrated in these experiments.
中文摘要………………………………………………………………i
英文摘要………………………………………………………………ii
謝誌……………………………………………………………………iii
目錄……………………………………………………………………iv
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………vi
表目錄…………………………………………………………………ix

第一章 緒論…………………………………………………1
1.1前言………………………………………………………1
1.2文獻探討…………………………………………………1
1.3研究動機與目的…………………………………………3
1.4論文架構…………………………………………………4
第二章 系統架構……………………………………………6
2.1系統硬體架介紹…………………………………………6
2.2 HCTL-2020解碼IC介紹…………………………………9
2.3影像視覺系統……………………………………………12
第三章 機械臂運動控制……………………………………15
3.1座標系統齊次轉換………………………………………16
3.2機械臂運動學……………………………………………19
3.3路徑規劃…………………………………………………25
3.4應用實例…………………………………………………27
第四章 機械臂視覺伺服控制………………………………37
4.1攝影機座標與機械臂座標轉換…………………………38
4.1.1影像Jacobian臂座標轉換……………………………40
4.1.2狀態方程式與狀態回授控制法則……………………41
4.2棋子定位…………………………………………………43
4.3視覺伺服系統架構………………………………………43
第五章 實驗結果……………………………………………47
第六章 結論與建議…………………………………………54
6.1研究結論…………………………………………………54
6.2將來研究之建議…………………………………………54
參考文獻…………………………………………………… 55
附錄………………………………………………………… 58
附錄A…………………………………………………………59
附錄B…………………………………………………………60
附錄C…………………………………………………………62
附錄D…………………………………………………………65
附錄E…………………………………………………………67
附錄F…………………………………………………………68
圖目錄
圖2.1系統硬體架構圖………………………………………6
圖2.2機械臂控制架構圖……………………………………7
圖2.3機械臂外觀示意圖……………………………………8
圖2.4編碼器的輸出波形圖…………………………………9
圖2.5編碼器的解碼方塊圖…………………………………9
圖2.6 HCTL-2020內部訊號處理流程圖……………………10
圖2.7四倍解碼訊號的時序圖………………………………11
圖2.8 HCTL-2020完整的時序圖……………………………12
圖2.9電腦象棋影像判讀處理流程圖………………………14
圖3.1機械臂各連桿間的座標表示法………………………15
圖3.2兩座標系統之間的轉換………………………………16
圖3.3繞Z軸逆時針旋轉 角度………………………………17
圖3.4繞X軸逆時針旋轉 角度………………………………17
圖3.5繞Y軸逆時針旋轉 角度………………………………18
圖3.6機械臂各部位座標示意圖……………………………21
圖3.7機械臂三軸連桿的(a)上視示意圖及(b)側視示意圖………23
圖3.8機械臂三軸連桿的側視分析圖………………………………24
圖3.9路徑規劃執行流程圖…………………………………………29
圖3.10棋盤大小與棋子走位的路徑規劃設計圖…………………30
圖3.11包吃仕之各軸的角度變化…………………………………33
圖3.12俥吃包之各軸的角度變化…………………………………34
圖3.13馬走位之各軸的角度變化…………………………………35
圖3.14卒走位之各軸的角度變化…………………………………36
圖4.1物體座標系………………………………………………… 38
圖4.2以影像為基礎的視覺伺服系統方塊圖…………………… 42
圖4.3以位置為基礎看而後動系統……………………………… 44
圖4.4以位置為基礎直接視覺伺服系統………………………… 45
圖4.5以影像為基礎看而後動系統……………………………… 45
圖4.6以影像為基礎直接視覺伺服系統………………………… 46
圖5.1實驗系統圖………………………………………………… 48
圖5.2機械臂移動棋子的控制流程圖…………………………… 49
圖5.3機械臂執行包吃仕的動作訊號…………………………… 50
圖5.4機械臂執行俥吃包的動作訊號…………………………… 51
圖5.5機械臂執行馬走位路徑的動作訊號……………………… 52
圖5.6機械臂執行卒走位路徑的動作訊號……………………… 53
附圖C.1時脈電路………………………………………………… 62
附圖C.2 HCTL-2020解碼與74139解多工的組合電路……………63
附圖C.3 7475栓鎖與DAC0800D/A轉換的組合電路………………64
附圖D.1 PI控制電路圖……………………………………………65
附圖D.2達靈頓電功率電晶體與OP放大器組成的驅動電路圖.. 66
表目錄
表2.1機械臂各轉軸之旋轉角度範圍……………………………7
表2.2訊號SEL、OE讀取high byte與Low byte的關係…………11
表3.1(a)包吃對手棋子仕的路徑規劃………………………… 31
表3.1(b)包吃對手棋子仕的路徑規劃………………………… 31
表3.2俥吃對手棋子包的路徑規劃………………………………31
表3.3馬走棋盤上的日型格線路徑規劃…………………………32
表3.4卒走棋盤上的一格線路徑規劃……………………………32
附表A.1各軸質量長度表…………………………………………59
附表A.2各軸工作轉動範圍………………………………………59
附表B.1個人電腦規格……………………………………………60
附表B.2 D/A介面卡(PCL-726)規格…………………………… 60
附表B.3取像卡及攝影機鏡頭規格………………………………61


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