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研究生:楊惠琴
論文名稱:記憶、學習與意義建構:國小學童博物館經驗之個案研究
論文名稱(外文):Memory, learning, and mean-making: A Case Study of Elementary School Students' Museum Experience
指導教授:李靜芳李靜芳引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:藝術教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:專業科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:155
中文關鍵詞:博物館觀眾研究博物館經驗博物館學習
外文關鍵詞:museumvisitor studymuseum experiencemuseum learning
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摘 要

博物館觀眾研究在歐美地區巳有相當的發展,而國內尚處於起步階段,本個案系針對國小學童參觀博物館後的經驗研究,然重點不以學童參觀博物館後立即性反應,而是將時間拉長至一年後,瞭解學童該次參觀所能遺留下來的博物館經驗內容,從中探究學童參觀之感受、想法與建議所能帶給教育者之思考,並從相關的理論與學者論述中探討博物館經驗與博物館學習兩者之間的關係。
在研究方法上採取前人觀眾研究所使用過的方法,分別為問卷、繪圖以及焦點團體訪談,不同方法俱以呈現學童經驗內容。研究結果在學童博物館經驗內容上,可歸納出如下特點:一為對於經驗記憶之清晰持久,無論是團體的經驗內容或為個人化的經驗內容,學童表達出了當時的參觀情形;二為對於展覽物件之描繪深刻,除了當天團體活動地點外,學童也關注到了其他細微的小地方,對於展覽物件深刻地表現在繪圖內容中。
在感受、想法與建議上,從博物館互動經驗模式之物質感受層面、社會互動層面,以及個人脈絡層面進行論述,學童在這些層面上可歸納出幾項一致的感受,同時也驗證了模式所提:博物館經驗從尚未踏入博物館前便巳開始,並且持續影響著下一次的博物館經驗。其次,筆者從相關理論與論述中探討了經驗與學習兩者之間的關係,從學童的訪談中,筆者確信在博物館裡學習的發生,同時學習的過程與內容是關乎於學童自身所感興趣的部份。
最後,筆者針對此次學童博物館參觀經驗提出個人對於教育層面之思考、個人身為導覽義工、研究過程之省思,以及相關研究之建議。

關鍵字:博物館、觀眾研究、博物館經驗、博物館學習

Abstract

Studies on museum visitors about their responses after visits have been conducted in Western countries for many years, while they are still in the beginning phrase in Taiwan. This thesis aims at understanding elementary school students’ experiences after they pay visits to museums. However, instead of being interviewed about their immediate responses toward their visits, the children are interviewed one year after they pay visits to museums about their feelings, thoughts, and suggestions toward the visits, which can act as further issues for educators to reflect on. This thesis also discusses the relationship between museum experiences and museum learning based on related theories and scholars’ discourses.
Various research methods, such as questionnaires, graphs, and focus group interviews, which have been used by past studies about museum visitors, are also applied in this thesis to present different aspects of children’s museum experiences. There are two main conclusions about children’s museum experiences:
1. Children’s memory about their visits is clear and long-lasting. Even though it has been one year after they visit the museums, they can still describe what they did and what they saw, including both group activities and personal experiences.
2. Children are able to describe exhibition objects in details. In addition to the surroundings of the sites of their group activities, the children also paid attention to the details and can draw exhibition objects clearly and vividly in their paintings.
The findings of this thesis on children’s feelings, thoughts, and suggestions are discussed according to the Interactive Experience Model, which were put forth by museum scholars, John Falk and Lynn Dierking. It could be concluded into several items of feelings and also verified the model: The museum experiences have begun before the children step into museums, and continue to affect their next museum experiences.
This thesis also discusses the relationship between museum experiences and museum learning based on related theories and discourses. From the interviews to the children, it is believed that learning does happen in museums, and the process and content of what the children learn are related to what the children are interested in.
In the final chapter the writer shares her personal opinions about the educational functions of children’s field trips to museums, her personal experiences of being a voluntary docent, her reflections on the process of conducting this thesis, and offers some suggestions for future researchers.

Keywords: museum visitor study museum experience museum learning

目 錄

中文摘要 i
英文摘要 iii
謝 誌 v
目 錄 vii
表 次 ix
圖 次 xi


引子 1
一群孩子在博物館的經驗故事 1
第一章 緒論 9
1.1. 研究源起與動機 9
1.2. 個案班級學童 11
1.3. 研究目的、架構與問題 12
1.4. 研究範圍與限制 14
1.5. 國美館馬雅展暨學習日簡介 15
第二章 文獻探討 19
2.1. 博物館經驗、學習脈絡模式 19
2.2. 國內相關研究文獻 24
2.2.1. 三篇論文之分析比較 26
2.2.2. 國中生博物館經驗論文與本個案之討論 28
2.3. 國外相關研究文獻 30
2.3.1. 從心理學看博物館記憶 30
2.3.2. 記憶研究之目的、分類與方式 33
2.3.3. 校外參觀記憶之研究 36
2.4. 兒童發展心理論述 38
2.4.1. 皮亞傑之認知發展觀點 40
2.4.2. 維高斯基之認知發展觀點 43
2.4.3. 博物館教育之啟示 43
2.5. 觀眾研究方法 45
2.5.1. 問卷方法 48
2.5.2. 繪圖方法 49
2.5.3. 焦點團體方法 50
第三章 研究方法 53
3.1. 研究設計 53
3.1.1. 個案研究法 54
3.1.2. 資料蒐集階段 55
3.1.3. 小個案學童的選擇 56
3.1.4. 研究流程 57
3.2. 資料蒐集方法 58
3.3. 實施過程 61
3.3.1. 實施的情形 61
3.3.2. 資料整理與分析 65
第四章 研究分析與討論 69
4.1. 初步問卷分析 69
4.1.1. 初步問卷分析 69
4.1.2. 問卷分析小結 100
4.1.3. 綜合討論 102
4.2. 繪圖內容分析 103
4.2.1. 繪畫內容 104
4.2.2. 綜合討論 106
4.3. 學童博物館經驗內容 109
4.3.1. 博物館經驗內容 109
4.3.2. 參觀經驗之感受、想法與建議 121
4.4. 博物館經驗與學習 129
4.4.1. 安那波里斯會議之學習議題 131
4.4.2. 記憶、學習與意義建構 144
第五章 總結、省思與建議 147
5.1. 個案研究總結 147
5.1.1. 學童博物館經驗內容 147
5.1.2. 學童參觀之感受、想法與建議 148
5.2. 博物館參觀之教育層面思考 149
5.3. 參與義工導覽暨研究過程之省思 153
註解 157
參考文獻 159
附錄 163
附錄一:展覽平面圖 163
附錄二:學校學習日簡章 164
附錄三:學校學習日課程表 165
附錄四:校外教學通知 166
附錄五:初步問卷 167
附錄六:訪談指引 173
附錄七:學童繪圖內容 174


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