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研究生:洪銘成
研究生(外文):Ming-Cheng Hung
論文名稱:以魯梅克斯酸模釀製醬油之研究
論文名稱(外文):Studies on the Fermented Shoyu Made from Rumex K-1
指導教授:曾慶瀛曾慶瀛引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chin-Yin Tseng, Ph.D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:食品科學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:157
中文關鍵詞:醬油Rumex K-1酸模天然醱酵抗氧化能力殺菁煮汁商業酵素
外文關鍵詞:Soy sauceshoyuRumex K-1Natural fermentationAntioxidant activityBlanching liquidCommercial enzyme
相關次數:
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醬油在亞洲地區是最重要調味料之一,其使用歷史已相當久遠,主要原料是富含蛋白質的植物,各地區原料之比例(如豆與麥比例)略有差異,或者原料會以當地生物資源替代(如魚露)。Rumex K-1酸模(Rumex patientia × R. tianschanicus)是一種新型的高蛋白植物資源,屬蓼科酸模屬多年生草本植物。本論文目的為探討使用魯梅克斯酸模(Rumex K-1)取代大豆來釀造草本醬油的可行性,內容分作兩個部分探討,第一部分採用Rumex K-1酸模,當作蛋白質來源(氮源),以三種不同比例取代黃豆,以大陶缸(60公升)進行六個月的醬油釀製,另與一全黃豆的對照組作比較。本實驗的第二部分,為研究以商業酵素Alcalase及Flavourzyme來分解Rumex K-1酸模,生產胺基酸液以調配黃豆醱酵醬油。
實驗測定項目包括一般醬油指標成分(總氮、甲醛態氮、胺基態氮、pH、酸度、褐變程度、還原糖及鹽度)、香氣成分、水解後分子大小分佈、胺基酸組成以及抗氧化能力之評估,並以測定總抗氧化力(TEAC)、類超氧歧化酶(SOD-like)活性等兩項指標的結果,來比較各比例醬油的抗氧化能力。
實驗結果顯示,以Rumex K-1酸模50%取代黃豆來釀造,可得到品質最好的Rumex K-1酸模醬油;而與全黃豆的控組比較下,以Rumex K-1酸模取代黃豆釀造的醬油在一般醬油指標、總抗氧化力(TEAC)上大多不如全黃豆釀造者,但酸模釀製醬油中100%取代黃豆的配方在SOD-like活性是優於全黃豆的控制組,而以Rumex K-1酸模50%取代黃豆的配方,在官能品評上與全黃豆的控制組無顯著差異。另以Rumex K-1酸模殺菁煮汁調配鹽水,進行同樣六個月釀造後的Rumex K-1醬油,其品質較用傳統鹽水釀造者差。
在使用商業酵素水解的分析中,以Rumex K-1酸模調配的5%蛋白質溶液,在pH 6.0、溫度55℃下,經過0, 7, 14, 21小時分解後的總氮%、胺基態氮%及水溶性氮指數%等,找出分解效率最好的酵素組合。由實驗結果發現,Alcalase對總氮%、胺基態氮%及水溶性氮指數%的貢獻較Flavourzyme大,而經21個小時分解後,以Alcalase(20 AU)及Flavourzyme(50 LAPU)的酵素組合可獲得最好的蛋白質水解效果。
Soy sauce (shoyu) is one of the most important seasonings, and it had been used for long time. The main material of soy sauce is the plant that contain rich protein. The material ratio for soy sauce varies in different area, or material for protein may be substituted by local
biomass (e.g. yu lu). Rumex K-1 (Rumex patientia × R. tianschanicus) is a new plant resource with high protein content. It belongs to Rumex L. (Polygonaceae) and is perennial herbage. The aim of thesis is to investigate feasibility of herbaceous shoyu fermentation with Rumex K-1 instead of soybean. The thesis divided into two parts. In first part, adapting Rumex K-1 instead of soybean as protein source and fermented shoyu in three formula. Fermentation was proceeding in large pot outdoor for six months. At the same time, comparing with one control group that fermented with whole soybean. In the second part of the thesis, we used commercial enzyme (Alcalase and Flavourzyme) to hydrolyze the Rumex K-1 to obtain amino acid hydrolysate. We plan to add the amino acid hydrolysate to shoyu
mash for manufacturing high-class shoyu.
General fermentation index( TN%, FN%, AN%, pH, acidity, browning degree, reducing sugar, and salinity), flavor components, molecular size istribution after hydrolysis, amino acid composition, and antioxidant activity were determined to evaluate the efficiency of fermentation. We measured TEAC and SOD-like activity to compare the antioxidant activity of shoyu of different formula.
The results of experiments show that fermentation with Rumex K-1 substituted 50% soybean can obtain the best quality of shoyu. Comparing with the control made of soybean, the Rumex K-1 shoyu is less than soybean shoyu in general fermentation index and TEAC, but the formula substituted 100% soybean is greater than soybean control in SOD activity; the formula substituted 50% soybean is less than soybean control in sensory evaluation. Besides, the blanching liquid was used to prepare fermentation brine. The blanching liquid brine was also used in Rumex K-1 shoyu fermentation in the same three formulas. As a result, the quality of shoyu in extract brine is less than that fermented with normal brine.
The Rumex K-1 protein( adjusted to 5%) hydrolysis with commercial enzyme( Alcalase and Flavourzyme) was conducted at pH 6.0 and 55℃ for up to 21 hours. The results show that TN%, FN%, AN%, and NSI% were mainly derived from the action of Alcalase. However, 20 AU Alcalase and 50 LAPU Flavourzyme could result in the best protein hydrolysis efficiency.
圖次----------------------------------------------Ⅲ
表次----------------------------------------------Ⅵ
中文摘要-------------------------------------------1
英文摘要-------------------------------------------2
前言-----------------------------------------------4
文獻整理
第一章 醬油之介紹------------------------------5
第二章 醬油的香氣-----------------------------13
第三章 大豆中油脂對醬油品質之影響-------------20
第四章 魯梅克斯Rumex K-1酸模之簡介------------22
第五章 大豆醱酵產品之抗氧化活性---------------26
第六章 以酵素生產蛋白質水解液-----------------32
材料與方法
一、實驗架構----------------------------------35
二、材料--------------------------------------36
三、藥品------------------------------------------36
四、儀器------------------------------------------37
五、方法
(一) Rumex K-1酸模醬油之釀造-------------38
(二)釀造過程一般成份分析-----------------42
(三)胺基酸分析---------------------------45
(四)酸模醬油上清液分子大小分佈分析-------46
(五)酸模醬油香氣之抽取,濃縮與分析鑑定---48
(六)官能品評-----------------------------50
(七)抗氧化能力分析-----------------------51
(八)以商業酵素水解Rumex K-1酸模----------53
結果與討論
第一部分 以自然醱酵釀造酸模醬油
第一章 一般成分之分析結果
第一節 Rumex K-1酸模之一般組成分--------54
第二節 以Rumex K-1酸模部分取代大豆所醱酵醬油
之一般組成分探討-----------------56
第三節 以酸模煮汁調配鹽水與正常鹽水醱酵酸模醬油
之比較探討-----------------------75
第四節 用完整大豆與脫脂大豆片所釀製醬油之一般成
分比較---------------------------86
第二章 胺基酸組成之分析結果-----------------------88
第三章 Rumex K-1酸模醬油上清液分子大小分布--------95
第四章 Rumex K-1酸模醬油之香氣組成---------102
第五章 Rumex K-1酸模醬油之官能品評---------114
第六章 Rumex K-1酸模醬油之抗氧化能力
第一節 總抗氧化能力的分析結果----------118
第二節 類超氧歧化酶活性的分析結果------127
第二部分 利用商業酵素分解Rumex K-1酸模製得
植物水解液(HVP)-----------------------135
結論---------------------------------------------140
參考文獻-----------------------------------------142
附錄一 ------------------------------------------152
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