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研究生:張艮媚
研究生(外文):Ken-Mei Chang
論文名稱:盒裝豆腐質地改進之研究
論文名稱(外文):Studies on Texture-Improving for Packed Tofu
指導教授:李益榮李益榮引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Iong Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:食品科學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:109
中文關鍵詞:盒裝豆腐葡萄糖酸-δ-內酯氯化鎂小蘇打發粉卡德蘭膠
外文關鍵詞:packed tofuleavening agentmagnesium chloridesodium bicarbonatebaking powdercurdlan
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盒裝豆腐組織緻密、極易離水,烹調不易入味,在口感上不如傳統豆腐,且製造時容易分層,其上下層硬度顯著不同,亟需改善。本研究分成兩部份進行:( 1 ) 盒裝豆腐分層現象的改善,( 2 ) 盒裝豆腐質地及吸收湯汁速率之改善。前者以0.3 % ( w/w ) 葡萄糖酸-δ-內酯配合三種氯化鎂濃度 ( 0.025、0.05及0.1 % ( w/w ) )製成盒裝豆腐,探討添加氯化鎂是否能消除盒裝豆腐硬度分層現象;後者以小蘇打、發粉及卡德蘭膠為試驗因子,用反應曲面實驗設計進行試驗,製作盒裝豆腐,其添加量分別為0.1-0.4 % 、0-1.0 % 及0-2.0 % ( w/w ),嘗試盒裝豆腐質地之改善及吸收湯汁速率之提升。結果顯示,( 1 ) 在氯化鎂最少添加量( 0.025 % ) 下,已可改善盒裝豆腐硬度分層現象。( 2 ) 盒裝豆腐質地及改善吸收湯汁速率試驗的結果,以小蘇打對豆腐吸水速率影響較大,而且其添加量愈大則豆腐的吸水速率愈大,但若與發粉同時使用時,則會降低豆腐的密度;卡德蘭膠對豆腐質地的硬度、彈性度、膠性度及咀嚼度之提升有顯著的影響,而小蘇打及發粉則可使豆腐硬度降低。
There are many defects in quality of packed tofu to be overcome, such as somewhat firm and non-uniform texture, high syneresis and weak soup-absorbing ability during cooking. The studies were conducted at two stages. First, to forge the texture of packed tofu from non-uniform to uniform state, and followed by experiment carried out to improve texture and soup-absorbing ability of packed tofu. At the first stage, 0.3 % ( w/w ) glucono-δ-lactone combined respectively with three concentrations, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 % ( w/w ) of magnesium chloride used to solve the problem of non-uniform texture of packed tofu. At the second stage, three processing factors, the amounts of sodium bicarbonate, baking powder and curdlan added, were used to constrain a central composite design with range of 0.1-0.4 %, 0-1.0 % and 0-2.0 % ( w/w ) respectively, to improve the texture and soup-absorbing ability of packed tofu. It was showed that, addition of magnesium chloride even at its minimal amount, 0.025 % ( w/w ), could solve completely problem of non-uniform texture. The soup-absrobing ability were more greatly influenced by sodium bicarbonate than by the other two processing factors, and the more sodium bicarbonate added, the greater the soup-absorbing ability was. It was also found that curdlan brought about a significant increase in hardness of packed tofu. Addition of sodium bicarbonate or baking powder, on the other hand, decreased hardness of packed tofu. The tofu with highest and lowest soup-absorbing ability, without addition of curdlan, showed high overall preference scores in sensory evaluation.
目錄
頁次
中文摘要……………………………………………………………………I
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………II
壹、前言……………………………………………………………………1
貳、文獻回顧………………………………………………………………2
一、大豆……………………………………………………………………2
1. 大豆簡介………………………………………………………………2
2. 大豆化學成分……………………………………………………3
2.1 醣類……………………………………………………………3
2.2 蛋白質……………………………………………………….4
2.3 脂質………………………………………………………….7
2.4 微量成分…………………………………………………….8
二、豆腐種類………………………………………………………..9
1. 傳統豆腐………………………………………………………9
2. 嫩豆腐……………………………………………………….10
3. 盒裝豆腐…………………………………………………….10
4. 凍豆腐……………………………………………………….13
三、凝固劑…………………………………………………………14
四、膨大劑…………………………………………………………14
1. 膨大劑定義與種類………………………………………….14
2. 小蘇打……………………………………………………….18
3. 發粉………………………………………………………….18
4. 葡萄糖酸-δ-內酯…………………………………………….20
5. 產氣速率……………………………………………………20
五、卡德蘭膠………………………………………………………21
參、研究目的……………………………………………………………29
肆、材料與方法…………………………………………………………30
一、試驗架構………………………………………………………..30
二、試驗材料………………………………………………………..32
1. 大豆原料…………………………………………………32
2. 藥品………………………………………………………32
2.1 凝固劑…………………………………………………..32
2.2膨大劑……………………………………………………32
2.3卡德蘭膠…………………………………………………32
2.4其他藥品…………………………………………………32
三、儀器裝置與設備……………………………………………32
四、試驗方法……………………………………………………34
1. 大豆吸水速率測定………………………………………34
2. 原料豆漿之製備…………………………………………34
3. 盒裝豆腐之製作…………………………………………35
4.盒裝豆腐分層現象改進試驗……………………………..35
5. 膨大劑產氣速率測定……………………………………37
6. 豆腐凝固過程升溫速率測定……………………………37
7. 盒裝豆腐質地改進試驗…………………………………37
8. 掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察豆腐孔洞………………………39
9. 質地均勻之盒裝豆腐官能品評…………………………39
五、分析項目………………………………………………………41
1. 一般成分分析……………………………………………41
1.1 水分……………………………………………………..41
1.2 蛋白質…………………………………………………..41
1.3 脂肪……………………………………………………..42
1.4 灰分……………………………………………………..43
2. 豆腐產率…………………………………………………43
3. 乳清流失率………………………………………………44
4. 豆腐水分含量……………………………………………44
5. 豆腐密度…………………………………………………44
6. 豆腐吸水速率……………………………………………44
7. 豆腐質地…………………………………………………45
伍、結果與討論…………………………………………………………47
一、大豆一般成分分析……………………………………………47
二、大豆浸泡時間決定……………………………………………49
三、盒裝豆腐分層現象之改進……………………………………51
四、盒裝豆腐硬度及吸收湯汁速率之改進………………………61
(一)實驗設計及製得豆腐之特性……………………………62
(二)不同添加物及組成對盒裝豆腐物理特性之影響………71
1. 豆腐吸水深度……………………………………………71
2. 乳清流失率………………………………………………74
3. 豆腐密度…………………………………………………76
4. 豆腐產率…………………………………………………78
5. 豆腐水分含量……………………………………………82
(三)不同添加物及組成對盒裝豆腐質地特性之影響………82
1. 硬度………………………………………………………83
2. 彈性度……………………………………………………85
3. 凝聚度……………………………………………………87
4. 膠性度……………………………………………………89
5. 咀嚼度……………………………………………………91
6. 豆腐孔洞…………………………………………………93
五、質地均勻之盒裝豆腐官能品評………………………………97
陸、結論………………………………………………………………100
柒、參考文獻…………………………………………………………101
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