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研究生:薛耀晴
研究生(外文):Yao-Ching Hsueh
論文名稱:以超臨界二氧化碳與膜過濾技術萃取與純化梅果中amygdalin之研究
論文名稱(外文):Amygdalin extracted and purified from plum (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) using supercritical fluid extraction and membrane process
指導教授:王璧娟
指導教授(外文):Be-Jen Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:食品科學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:138
中文關鍵詞:杏仁苷超臨界流體薄膜溶劑萃取
外文關鍵詞:amygdalinsupercritical fluidmembranesolvent extraction
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梅果─梅屬薔薇科(Family Rosaceae),學名為Prunus mune Sieb. et Zucc.,英文名為mei或japanese apricot,文獻報告中記載,梅果除含豐富的有機酸外,還有其他苦味物質如杏仁苷(amygdalin),杏仁苷為一氰配糖體,具毒性、苦味,其功能有鎮痛、解熱、消炎、止咳平喘、抑制腫瘤等,目前在市面上販售的品種約有大青梅,軟枝梅,胭脂梅等等,其加工製品如梅酒、蜜餞梅、脆梅等。
本研究是以超臨界流體萃取技術及傳統溶劑萃取模式與薄膜分離法,對梅果中amygdalin進行萃取及分離之探討,在傳統溶劑萃取部分是採用三種不同極性溶劑(Ethanol、H2O、Hexane),並搭配三種萃取模式(索式萃取、超音波均質萃取、震盪萃取)進行分析,而超臨界流體部分是採用萃取Box-Behnken所設計之13次反應曲面法(RSM)模式,針對不同CO2質量比在壓力10-30 MPa、溫度40-60℃與CO2流速3-9ml/min之操作範圍內,並配合輔溶劑之使用,進行梅果核與肉中amygdalin萃取,並利用複迴歸運算預測實驗尋找最適之反應操作條件。接著將區分為果糖與砂糖的梅酒,分別取浸漬30-90天進行品評,篩選出較佳的樣品進行分析,針對不同薄膜(0.45μm、UK200、UK50、UP20、UK10)來進行過濾,探討梅酒液中所含amygdalin含量,並進行統計分析薄膜之間的差異性。
由結果發現:(1)不使用輔溶劑下最適萃取分離操作條件為20MPa、40℃時,可獲得較高濃度的amygdalin萃取物。(2)在使用輔溶劑下最適萃取分離操作條件為30MPa、60℃時,可獲得較高濃度的amygdalin萃取物。(3)在溶劑萃取中發現不論是梅肉或梅核部分,接建議採用醇溶性Ethanol搭配超音波均質萃取效果最佳,在梅果中酚類與類黃酮部分也有這個現象,整體而言杏仁苷含量應屬梅核中為高。(4)由薄膜分離後發現梅酒液果糖處理於90天後在使用UK10 (cut off size =10000),WCR=4時,可獲得較高濃度的amygdalin及其他酚類物質之萃取物。
Plum is belonged to the family of rose (Family Rosaceae). The scientific name of plum is Prunus mune Sieb. et Zucc. and its English name is mei or Japanese apricot. According to earlier reports, plum contains an abundant amount of organic acids and amygdalin, a bitter flavor compound. Although the hydrogen cyanide released from cyanogenic glycosides structure of amygdalin causes toxicity, the functions of amgydalin exhibit to ease pain, to solve hot, to depress inflammation, to relieve cough, to flat breath heavily, and to suppress the growth of tumor cells. The varieties on the market are big greengages plums, soft plums, and blusher plums and the processing products include plum wine, candied fruit plums, and fragile plums.
This study is to extract amygdalin from plums using the technology of supercritical fluid extraction or traditional solvent extraction and then to concentrate the contents of amygdalin from plum wine using membrane processing. Three types of solvent, including ethanol, water, and hexane, collocating three extraction methods, including soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic homogenization extraction, and shake extraction, were used to extract amygdalin from plums. The operation process of supercritical fluid extraction was performed 13 times following the models of response curved surface law (RSM), which was designed by Box-Behnken. Various ratios of CO2 mass, operated at the range of pressures (10-30 MPa) and temperatures (40-60℃), flow rates (3-9ml/min of CO2), and cosolvent, were used to extract amygdalin from plum core and meat in the supercritical system. The predicted data were further fitted into multiple regressions for the determination of optima extraction conditions. The brewing of plum wines was soaking plums with fructose or sucrose for 30-90 day. The wines with the best sensory scores were filtered through various cut-off size (0.45μm、UK200、UK50、UP20、UK10) membranes and the amygdalin contents in permeates and retentates were determined.
Our experimental results showed:(1)The optima operation condition to extract amygdalin was operated at 20MPa and 40℃. (2) The highest yield of amygdalin was operated at 30MPa and 60℃ under the complementing of cosolvents. (3) Extraction of plum core and meat with ethanol and ultrasonic homogenization obtained the highest amounts of amygdalin and flavonoids. (4)Membrane process showed that the highest amygdalin and phenolic contents was concentrated plum wine soaked with fructose for 90 days with UK 10 to WCR= 4.
中文摘要……………………………………………………………………I
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………III
目錄…………………………………………………………………………V
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………X
表目錄……………………………………………………………………XIII
前言…………………………………………………………………………1
第一章、文獻整理…………………………………………………………2
第一節、梅果簡介…………………………………………………………2
一、梅果性狀及品種………………………………………………………2
二、梅果採收前後生理與生化之研究……………………………………6
三、梅果的化學組成分之分析……………………………………………7
四、梅果中杏仁苷之研究…………………………………………………14
第二節、超臨界流體之簡介………………………………………………21
一、超臨界的歷史與未來發展……………………………………………21
二、超臨界流體的定義與性質……………………………………………24
三、影響超臨界流體萃取的因素…………………………………………28
四、超臨界流體技術在工業上之應用……………………………………31
第三節、薄膜分離技術之簡介……………………………………………39
一、薄膜分離技術之展望及現況…………………………………………39
二、薄膜分離的性質與原理………………………………………………39
三、薄膜的材質……………………………………………………………49
四、影響薄膜分離操作之因素……………………………………………51
五、薄膜分離技術在食品工業上之應用…………………………………55
第二章、梅果中機能性成分萃取與分離之研究…………………………56
第一節、研究目的…………………………………………………………56
第二節、材料與方法………………………………………………………57
一、實驗材料………………………………………………………………57
二、實驗方法………………………………………………………………59
(一)超臨界流體萃取法……………………………………………………59
(二)一般萃取法……………………………………………………………60
(三)傳統梅酒浸漬法………………………………………………………63
(四)傳統梅酒經薄膜分離技術純化………………………………………63
(五)膜的清洗及保存………………………………………………………66
三、實驗設計………………………………………………………………67
四、分析方法………………………………………………………………71
(一)物化性質分析…………………………………………………………71
1-1.產率……………………………………………………………………71
1-2.總固形物含量…………………………………………………………71
1-3.pH值……………………………………………………………………71
1-4.黏度……………………………………………………………………71
1-5.顏色……………………………………………………………………71
(二)抗氧化能力與機能成分分析…………………………………………72
2-1.清除1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)自由基能力測定…72
2-2.總抗氧化能力測定……………………………………………………72
2-3.總酚含量測定…………………………………………………………73
2-4.類黃酮含量測定………………………………………………………73
2-5.還原力測定……………………………………………………………73
2-6.杏仁苷(amygdalin)含量測定…………………………………………74
(三)統計分析………………………………………………………………72
第三節、結果與討論………………………………………………………75
一、超臨界二氧化碳萃取…………………………………………………75
(一)萃取產率………………………………………………………………75
(二)萃取物中杏仁苷的含量………………………………………………81
(三)萃取物中類黃酮的含量………………………………………………84
(四)萃取物中總酚的含量…………………………………………………86
二、溶劑萃取………………………………………………………………91
(一)在不同方法與溶劑之萃取率…………………………………………91
(二)萃取物之物化性質……………………………………………………94
2-1.物理性質………………………………………………………………94
2-2.化學性質………………………………………………………………94
(三)不同極性與萃取方式之抗氧化能力與抗氧化機制…………………95
3-1.梅果萃取物中總酚與類黃酮…………………………………………95
3-2.清除1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)自由基能力測定…98
3-3.梅果萃取物之總抗氧化能力…………………………………………98
3-4.梅果萃取物之還原力…………………………………………………99
三、傳統梅酒浸漬法………………………………………………………101
(一)傳統梅酒浸漬法………………………………………………………101
(二)梅果酒液之物化性質…………………………………………………104
2-1.物理性質………………………………………………………………104
2-2.化學性質………………………………………………………………104
(三) 不同糖質及方法於30、60、90天之抗氧化能力與抗氧化機制……105
3-1.梅酒中總酚與類黃酮…………………………………………………105
3-2.清除1,1-diphenyl-2-pecryl hydrazyl (DPPH)自由基能力………108
3-3.梅果萃取物之總抗氧化能力…………………………………………108
3-4.梅果萃取物之還原力…………………………………………………108
四、傳統梅酒浸漬法經薄膜分離技術純化………………………………110
(一)官能品評………………………………………………………………110
(二)透流液流速與操作條件之關係………………………………………110
(三)梅酒浸漬液利用薄膜處理後對物化性之影響………………………116
3-1.物理性質………………………………………………………………116
3-2.化學性質………………………………………………………………117
(四)梅酒浸漬液利用薄膜處理後對抗氧化性之影響……………………117
4-1.薄膜分離後對總酚與類黃酮的影響…………………………………117
4-2.清除1,1-diphenyl-2-pecryl hydrazyl (DPPH)自由基能力………120
4-3.薄膜分離後對總抗氧化能力…………………………………………120
4-4.梅果萃取物之還原力…………………………………………………121
第四節、結論………………………………………………………………122
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………123
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1. 108.顏幸苑、康世芳,2003,染整廠放流水水質特性及薄膜回收再利用放流水之研究。化工技術。11-12(129):146-153。
2. 107.徐毓蘭、巫鴻章、林畢修平、李宜忠、劉照國,2003,工業廢水回收至製程再利用之高效率生物/物化複合處理技術。工業污染防治。22(4):17-37。
3. 102.林景寬,2003,生物科技藥物濃縮分離技術。化工技術。11-12(129):136-144。
4. 99.方進忠,1998,薄膜技術於水處理之應用。技術與訓練。23(6):18-33。
5. 89.陳昌佑,1999,以超薄膜過濾法處理製粉廢水之可行性探討。弘光學報。33:181-202。
6. 82.潘懷宗、劉晉魁、周良穎、李沐勳,1994,利用超臨界二氧化碳萃取砂仁、丁香、及當歸中之油性及香味成分。中醫藥雜誌。5(1):71-78。
7. 81.潘懷宗、林三吉、張光雄、李沐勳,1997,超臨界二氧化碳萃取十八種天然物之研究。化學。55(4):19-23。
8. 9.方祖達、趙昭惠,1994,梅子果汁成分類型分布之研究。食品科學21(1):34-35。
9. 8.張信彰,1986,梅是天然健康食品。食品工業。18(3):43-48。
10. 134.余哲仁、曾慶瀛、曾文慶,1997,以數學模型探討微過濾膜與超過濾膜處理對西印度櫻桃汁成分分佈之影響。中國農業化學會誌。35(1):52-60。
11. 125.張明慧、吳天賞、蘇正德,1996,茵陳蒿抗氧化成份之研究。食品科學。 23:594-607。
12. 112.李至倫,2003,海水淡化之趨勢與未來性分析。國家政策論壇。92(秋):281-291。
13. 111.陳仁仲、溫子文,沖繩縣北谷海水淡化設施介紹。節約用水。29:24-33。
14. 110.邱政勳、郭興中、張振章,2003,薄膜蒸餾海水淡化法。化工技術。11-12(129):124-134。
15. 4.柯文慶、賴滋漢,1985,濃厚梅子汁之研製。農林學報。34(1):89-96。
 
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