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研究生:張智惟
研究生(外文):Jyh-Wei Chang
論文名稱:虛擬實境大腸內視鏡於醫學診斷應用之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Construction of Virtual Colonoscopy for Medical Diagnostic Applications
指導教授:柯建全柯建全引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chien-Chuan Ko, Ph. D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:資訊工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:96
中文關鍵詞:電腦斷層影像虛擬實境大腸內視鏡光線追蹤法電腦輔助診斷
外文關鍵詞:ColonographyVirtual ColonoscopyRay-tracing
相關次數:
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本研究從一系列的下腹部電腦斷層掃瞄連續切片影像,提出一基於人體解剖學角度之完全自動化的快速分割演算法,先重建三維的體積資料,再切割大腸的三維體積。接著對體積切割的結果,以Euclidean距離轉換函式,在二次循序掃瞄的過程,將切割出來的屬於大腸內部體素點,計算其離開腸壁的距離,利用此距離值計算梯度向量,決定最佳化的虛擬內視鏡遊走路徑。虛擬顯示時,利用光線追蹤法的光線跳躍技術,使光線由交叉起始位置快速地的跳躍前進,獲得逼真的大腸內視鏡診斷畫面。模擬診斷時,經由計算投射光線的終點,量測幾何距離,以及延伸投射光線的取樣,計算可疑凸起物體的內部灰階分佈與形狀。最後,為了辨識腫瘤或瘜肉,我們分析可疑突起物體表面下之內部組織。在此步驟,我們藉著電腦輔助自動診斷腫瘤的技術,分析取樣腸壁表面之三維子體積的正交切片影像的曲率、灰階梯度及材質等辨識特徵,協助使用者快速找出可疑的病灶位置與腫瘤。
透過我們所發展的系統,虛擬大腸鏡不只可以模擬醫學手術的虛擬檢視,更可以擁有電腦輔助自動診斷能力。本系統推行在現今的醫療體系上,病人可以不必服用特殊的藥物、或請醫師更改現行的取像設備,就可以直接解決傳統大腸內視鏡篩檢結腸直腸癌病變的過程耗時、不適感與潛藏危險性等缺點,協助醫師有效地檢查腸道內部表面及表面突起物體,達到病理解剖診斷的功能。

Three-dimensional volume data were reconstructed from a series of CT slices under traditional barium-enhanced colonography. Automatic segmentation based on anatomic knowledge was developed in order to extract colonic wall voxels and a seed voxel. The distances from boundary (DFB) was measured from the interior voxel of the colonic wall to the boundary voxel. Then, the gradient vector corresponding to the DFB determined an optimal navigation path (a skeleton) for virtual colonoscopy based on Dijkstra’s algorithm. The proposed ray-tracing technique based on space-leaping technique reduced sampling computation and rendering time based on DFB, and provided a more realistic volume rendering. In order to further simulate clinical diagnosis, we provided various measurements useful to the classification of tumor or polyps including the diameter calculated from the geometric distance by casting two rays, the gray level distribution and the shape of the candidate objects by extending the sampling ray of the object. Therefore, the users can fast locate the position of a candidate tumor by analyzing the features of soft tissues within a salient object such as the curvature, the gray level and the contrast from three orthogonal views fetched from the central voxel at the sampling surfaces of colonic wall.
The virtual colonoscopy copes with the problems caused by traditional fiber-optic colonoscopy including the long examination time, uncomfortable, and potential risks to patients. It helps radiologists observe the surface of the colonic wall and the salient objects to realize the anatomy of the colon. They can thus plan surgical operation beforehand to enhance the cure ratio of the colonic diseases using the proposed virtual colonoscopy.

第一章 導論
1.1 前言
1.2 研究目的
1.3 文獻回顧
1.4 論文架構
第二章 影像分析與前處理
2.1 攝影取像及影像格式
2.2 體積資料前處理
2.2.1 體積資料重建
2.2.2 灰階值分析
2.2.3 資料量化
2.3 大腸體積自動分割
2.4 決定大腸骨架
第三章 虛擬顯示系統
3.1 表面描繪與體積描繪
3.1.1 表面描繪技術
3.1.2 體積描繪技術
3.2 交叉跳躍式光線法
3.2.1 提早結束光線計算(Early Ray Termination)
3.2.2 光線空間跳躍前進(Ray Space Leaping)
3.2.3 光線交叉前進
3.2.4 光源模型
3.3 虛擬相機之控制與遊走
3.3.1 虛擬相機控制介面設計
3.3.2 自動導航
第四章 瘜肉與腫瘤之檢查與偵測
4.1 互動式定量檢測
4.1.1 物體直徑量測
4.1.2 可疑瘜肉組織的顯示
4.2 電腦輔助診斷
4.2.1 成份分析
4.2.2 特徵量化與條件設定
第五章 實驗結果與討論
5.1 資料前處理
5.2 三維顯像速度比較
5.3 電腦輔助診斷
5.4 討論與未來展望
參考文獻

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