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研究生:洪玉珊
研究生(外文):Yu-Shan Hung
論文名稱:市場導向、智慧資本與企業績效關係之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Relationship Among Market Orienation, Intellectual Capital and Business Performance
指導教授:侯嘉政侯嘉政引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jia-Jeng Hou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:141
中文關鍵詞:市場導向智慧資本結構方程模式
外文關鍵詞:Market OrienationIntellectual CapitalStructural Equation ModelingSEM
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企業在營運環境上面臨許多革命性的挑戰,無形資產的運用往往比投資、管理有形資產更具關鍵性,因而對員工灌輸知識,並善加管理和運用,已成為所有企業的當務之急。在企業營運過程中,市場導向能使員工得以從顧客或競爭者處學習與自我成長,並透過良好的學習環境將知識擴散,然而,市場導向對企業而言只是個開始,如果沒有組織結構與流程的配適,組織將無法吸收所取得的資訊,進而內化成組織的核心資源(Slater and Narver, 1995),亦即企業的員工處於市場導向的組織文化下,若組織無法將這些知識蓄積在組織內,當人才流失時,組織的智慧資本也就跟著消逝了(Edvinsson and Malone,1997),因此,如何將市場導向所產生的知識蓄積成組織內的無形資產,實為身處知識經濟時代之企業所應共同重視的問題。
本研究根據廣義之服務業定義,以天下雜誌所公佈之2003年台灣地區TOP500大服務業與TOP100大金融業為研究對象,採兩階段程序(Bourque and Fielder, 1995),針對企業總經理發放問卷,並採用結構方程模式(Structural Equation Modeling, SEM)來驗證市場導向、智慧資本蓄積與企業績效因果模式。在結構方程模式中,本研究依據Anderson和 Gerbing (1988) 之二階段程序的建議,先分別檢定「市場導向」、「智慧資本」、「企業績效」等三個測量模式的建構效度,然後將此三個測量模式的各潛在變項,依照理論關係,建構三者之因果模式。本研究之因果模式中,整體模式適配考驗的指標大多通過所要求之接受值,顯示其為一個相當符合實證資料的模式;此一結果亦代表:本研究以服務業為對象,針對市場導向、智慧資本蓄積與企業績效所發展之量表,不論在建構信度或是建構效度上均十分良好。
此外,本研究的實證結果發現,市場導向與智慧資本呈現正向關係,且市場導向會經由智慧資本的蓄積,進而影響企業績效。此一結果支持Matsuno and Mentzer (2000)所提,市場導向與企業績效之間的關係並非單調的(Monotonic),亦即智慧資本蓄積的中介效果確實存在於市場導向與企業績效關係之間,故足以解釋為何過往研究市場導向與企業績效關係之學者所得實證結果不盡相同;同時也顯示智慧資本間具互補性,「人力焦點」是整個組織的心臟、也是唯一能夠觸摸到所有智慧資本各個領域的行動力量,但其卻無法直接影響企業績效,需透過關係資本與結構資本,才能對企業績效產生影響,亦即智慧資本之管理重點在其互動性與交互效果,不能偏廢。因此,企業界在發展智慧資本應考慮了智慧資本的互補性(Quinn et al. 1996),特別注意要如何組合智慧資本,才能提升智慧資本,對企業績效作出貢獻。
When the corporation faces many revolutionary challenges on its operational environment, knowing how to manage intangible assets is more important than tangible assets. Therefore, employees’ knowledge training with effective management and utilization has become the primary matter for all companies. In the operational processes of business, market orientation let employees not only can learn from their customers and competitors and be self-growth, but also disseminate knowledge through a nice learning environment. However, for companies, market orientation is just a beginning. If there is no suitable match between organizational structure and its processes, organization cannot utilize the information effectively and makes it into core resources (Slater and Narver, 1995). In other words, when employees are under the organizational culture of market orientation, if company cannot keep these knowledge inside of organization, company’s intellectual capital will be gone with employees leaving the jobs (Edvinsson and Malone,1997). Therefore, knowing how to keep intangible assets within organization under market orientation is an important matter for all enterprises in the knowledge economy time.
This study will be based on the service industry consisting of Top500 major services providers, as well as Top100 major financial services providers in Taiwan for the year 2003.According to Bourque and Fielder (1995), this study takes two step processes to survey managers of large financial service providers and apply to the structural equation modeling. These methods will be used to establish the casual model among market orientation, intellectual capital, and business performance. In the structural equation modeling, this study takes Anderson and Gerbing’s two-step process. First, we establish construct validity of the measurement model consisting of the three variables: market orientation, intellectual capital, and business performance. Then, we use latent variables of these three measurement model to establish a causal model among them. In the causal model of this study, most of overall model fit tests are pass, which suggests this model will be a suitable fit model. This result also indicates that the measurement scale, which we developed for market orientation, intellectual capital, and business performance of service industry, has good construct validity and reliability.
Besides, the results of this research show a positive correlation between market orientation and intellectual capital and as a result of intellectual capital accumulation, market orientation affects business performance. This demonstrates Matsuno and Mentzer’s (2000) proposal that the relationship between market orientation and business performance is not monotonic. In fact, intellectual capital plays a mediating role between market orientation and business performance. This finding serves to explain the differences in results among researchers who dwelt in the relationship between Market Orientation and Business Performance. Also, it indicates that the intellectual capitals are complementary. At the heart of organization, human capital plays an important role because it encompasses all of those related to intellectual capital. However, it will exert its effect on business performance through its relationships with relational and structural capital and the effectiveness of this relationship lies in its cross effect. Therefore, organizations that are trying to develop its intellectual capital must take into consideration the cross effects of this variable and others (Quinn et al. 1996). After all, it is through the right combinations of intellectual capital that would yield improved Business Performance.
目錄
圖 次…………………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
表 次…………………………………………………………………………Ⅳ
第一章 前言………………………………………………………………1
第一節、研究背景與研究動機…………………………………………1
第二節、研究問題與研究目的…………………………………………2
第三節、論文架構………………………………………………………2
第四節、研究流程………………………………………………………3
第五節、研究範圍………………………………………………………5
第二章 文獻探討…………………………………………………………6
第一節、市場導向之相關文獻回顧……………………………………6
第二節、智慧資本之相關文獻回顧……………………………………13
第三節、整體模式界定與研究假設……………………………………26
第三章 研究方法…………………………………………………………34
第一節、研究變項之操作型定義與衡量………………………………34
第二節、量表之設計與發展……………………………………………42
第三節、研究對象與抽樣方法…………………………………………55
第四節、資料分析方法…………………………………………………59
第四章?研究結果與討論…………………………………………………65
第一節、樣本特徵分析…………………………………………………65
第二節、測量模式之CFA分析………………………………………… 71
第三節、市場導向、智慧資本與企業績效因果模式評鑑……………105
第五章 結論與建議………………………………………………………116
第一節、研究結論………………………………………………………116
第二節、管理意涵與研究貢獻…………………………………………117
第三節、研究限制與後續研究建議……………………………………118
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………121
附件一………………………………………………………………………131
附件二………………………………………………………………………136
附件三…………K…………………………………………………………140
附件四………………………………………………………………………141
圖次
圖1-1 研究流程……………………………………………………………4
圖2-1 智慧資本的演進……………………………………………………13
圖2-2 智慧資本與企業績效關係…………………………………………25
圖2-3 市場導向、智慧資本與企業績效關係之概念模式………………26
圖2-4 識管理文獻分類準則之程序觀……………………………………31
圖3-1 量表建構流程………………………………………………………44
圖4-1 市場導向之整體模式………………………………………………74
圖4-2 市場導向修正後之標準化參數估計模式…………………………82
圖4-3 智慧資本之整體模式………………………………………………86
圖4-4 智慧資本修正後之標準化參數估計模式…………………………93
圖4-5 企業績效之整體模式………………………………………………97
圖4-6 企業績效修正後之標準化參數估計模式…………………………101
圖4-7 市場導向、智慧資本與企業績效因果之整體模式………………104
圖4-8 市場導向、智慧資本與企業績效修正後之標準化參數估計模式
………………………………………………………………………115
表次
表1-1 研究範圍……………………………………………………………5
表2-1 市場導向量表 (MKTOR)……………………………………………9
表2-2 市場導向量表(MARKOR)……………………………………………10
表2-3 市場導向與服務業之企業績效關係研究…………………………12
表2-4 智慧資本之定義與分類……………………………………………21
表2-5 本研究之假說與專家看法彙整表…………………………………33
表3-1 市場導向的變數內容………………………………………………37
表3-2 人力資本的變數內容………………………………………………39
表3-3 關係資本的變數內容………………………………………………40
表3-4 企業績效的變數內容………………………………………………42
表3-5 市場導向的因素分析結果…………………………………………48
表3-6 智慧資本的因素分析結果…………………………………………49
表3-7 公司績效的因素分析結果…………………………………………50
表3-8 市場導向之內部信度………………………………………………51
表3-9 智慧資本之內部信度………………………………………………52
表3-10 企業績效之內部信度 ……………………………………………52
表3-11 市場導向之再測信度 ……………………………………………53
表3-12 智慧資本之再測信度 ……………………………………………54
表3-13 企業績效之再測信度 ……………………………………………54
表3-14 樣本代表性檢定 …………………………………………………57
表3-15 服務業與金融業之比較 …………………………………………58
表3-16 樣本穩定性測試 …………………………………………………58
表3-17 整體模式配適指標建議標準表 …………………………………62
表4-1 市場導向量表之敘述性統計分析結果……………………………69
表4-2 智慧資本量表之敘述性統計分析結果……………………………70
表4-3 企業績效量表之敘述性統計分析結果 …………………………∙71
表4-4 市場導向量表之態勢與峰度分配…………………………………72
表4-5 智慧資本量表之態勢與峰度分配…………………………………73
表4-6 企業績效量表之態勢與峰度分配…………………………………73
表4-7 市場導向整體模式之參數估計表…………………………………76
表4-8 市場導向整體模式之評鑑結果及解釋原因………………………77
表4-9 Modification Indices for THETA-DELTA………………………78
表4-10 Oification Indices for LAMBDA-X …………………………∙79
表4-11 市場導向整體模式題項篩選後之評鑑結果……………………∙81
表4-12 市場導向測量模式之信度檢測 …………………………………84
表4-13 市場導向測量模式之參數估計表 ………………………………85
表4-14 市場導向測量模式之參數估計表 ………………………………85
表4-15 智慧資本整體模式之參數估計 …………………………………87
表4-16 智慧資本整體模式之評鑑結果及解釋原因 ……………………90
表4-17 智慧資本整體模式題項篩選後之評鑑結果 ……………………91
表4-18 智慧資本模式參數估計表 ………………………………………95
表4-19 智慧資本測量模式之信度檢測 …………………………………95
表4-20 智慧資本模式參數估計表 ………………………………………96
表4-21 企業績效模式參數估計表 ………………………………………98
表4-22 企業績效測量模式之評鑑結果及解釋原因……………………100
表4-23 企業績效測量模式題項篩選後之評鑑結果……………………100
表4-24 企業績效構念之信度檢測………………………………………102
表4-25 企業績效模式參數估計表………………………………………102
表4-26 企業績效模式參數估計表………………………………………103
表4-27 市場導向、智慧資本與企業績效因果模式參數估計…………105
表4-28 市場導向、智慧資本與企業績效因果模式之評鑑結果及解釋
原因………………………………………………………………109
表4-29 市場導向、智慧資本與企業績效因果模式潛在變項間之直接
效果………………………………………………………………113
表4-30 市場導向、智慧資本與企業績效因果模式潛在變項間之間接
效果………………………………………………………………113
表4-31 市場導向、智慧資本與企業績效因果模式潛在變項間之總效
果…………………………………………………………………114
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