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研究生:郭子敬
研究生(外文):Tzu-Ching Kuo
論文名稱:勁度可控式隔震系統於結構防震之應用
論文名稱(外文):Seismic protection of structures using stiffness controllable isolation system
指導教授:盧煉元盧煉元引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lyan-Ywan Lu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄第一科技大學
系所名稱:營建工程所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:285
中文關鍵詞:隔震系統勁度可控
外文關鍵詞:isolation systemstiffness controllable
相關次數:
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傳統滑動隔震支承於一般遠域震波中具有優異之減震效能,且支承摩擦係數
越低效果越佳。不過,低摩擦之傳統滑動隔震支承在具有長周期脈衝的近域震波
中則減震效果不彰,且易發生似共振之現象。而在傳統滑動隔震支承中加裝主動
控制機制雖能明顯改善隔震近域反應,但主動控制所需之控制力極大,因而不易
施作。為決解上述問題,本文提出勁度可控式之半主動隔震系統,以控制支承回
復勁度之方法來達到改善隔震結構反應之目的。此隔震系統之半主動控制力係由
支承位移及可改變之支承勁度而來,而目標控制力則由主動控制律來決定。因此,
本文先探討加裝主動控制後之滑動隔震系統在近遠域震波下的減震效果,所採用
之主動回饋控制律有最佳控制與振模控制二類。由數值模擬可知主動控制可有效
改善隔震效果,尤其以近域震波中之低摩擦滑動隔震支承最為顯著。接著,本文
以主動控制律所決定的控制力為目標,據以調整勁度可控式隔震系統之支承勁
度,以達到目標控制力之需求。經由數值模擬結果可知,本文所提隔震系統於近
遠域震波下之減震效果皆比傳統滑動隔震支承佳,其中以近域震波中之低摩擦傳
統式滑動隔震支承最為顯著,且所需之半主動控制力較主動控制力低。另則,本
文亦提出以槓桿原理實現勁度可控式隔震系統之構想機構,在推得槓桿式機構之
控制方程式後,經由數值模擬結果顯示,此槓桿式機構確可達到勁度可控式隔震
系統的功能。
Although conventional sliding isolators are very effective for vibration mitigation of structures subjected to regular far-field earthquakes, recent research has shown that they may not be effective for near-field earthquakes, which usually possess a long-period pulse-like waveform. Adding active device in the isolation systems may improve the near-fault responses of conventional sliding isolation, but the required control force is usually very large. In order to overcome this problem, a semi-active sliding isolation system, called Stiffness Controllable Isolation System (SCIS), was proposed in this study. This isolation system produces a semi-active control force by adjusting the
isolator’s stiffness. The semi-active force is determined based on a target control force, which is computed according to an active control law. In this study, two types of active control laws were employed to determine the target force, namely, optimal feedback control and modal control. The numerical results showed that for far-field and near-fault earthquakes, the proposed SCIS system is more effective on mitigating both the base displacement and the super-structural acceleration than the pass isolation (conventional sliding isolator), while it requires less control force than its active control
counterparts. Finally, a lever mechanism to realize the SCIS system was also proposed in this study. This mechanism alters the restoring stiffness of the isolator by controlling the lever arm. The numerical results demonstrated that the mechanism can achieve the goal of SCIS.
中文摘要--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------i
英文摘要---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ii
誌 謝--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------iii
目 錄---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------iv
表 目 錄--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------vii
圖 目 錄--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------viii
符號說明--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------xvii
第一章 導論------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
1.1 研究動機與背景----------------------------------------------------------------------1
1.2 文獻回顧-------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
1.3 研究內容-------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
第二章 勁度可控式隔震系統(SCSI)之分析模型---------------------------------------7
2.1分析模型-------------------------------------------------------------------------------7
2.1.1 引言--------------------------------------------------------------------------------7
2.1.2 被動式隔震系統---------------------------------------------------------------10
2.1.3 主動式隔震系統---------------------------------------------------------------12
2.1.4 半主動式隔震系統------------------------------------------------------------12
2.2 SCIS 狀態空間方程式------------------------------------------------------------ 13
2.2.1 運動連續時間狀態空間運動方程式---------------------------------------13
2.2.2 離散時間狀態運動方程式(矩形積分法) ---------------------------------16
2.3 滑動支承摩擦力之處理-----------------------------------------------------------17
2.4 勁度可控式隔震系統之半主動控制法-----------------------------------------18
2.5 數值模擬所採用之系統參數與地震力-----------------------------------------22
2.5.1 隔震結構系統參數------------------------------------------------------------22
2.5.2 地震力---------------------------------------------------------------------------23
第三章 隔震結構之主動控制法-----------------------------------------------------------24
3.1 引言----------------------------------------------------------------------------------24
3.2 最佳化控制法(LQR)--------------------------------------------------------------25
3.3 直接輸出回饋振模控制----------------------------------------------------------26
3.3.1 連續時間之直接輸出回饋振模控制---------------------------------------26
3.3.2 離散時間之直接輸出回饋振模控制---------------------------------------29
3.4 多步幅直接輸出回饋振模控制-------------------------------------------------30
3.5 數值模擬結果與討論-------------------------------------------------------------33
3.5.1 無控隔震系統------------------------------------------------------------------33
3.5.2 最佳化控制隔震系統---------------------------------------------------------34
3.5.3 直接輸出回饋振模控制隔震系統------------------------------------------35
3.5.4 多步幅直接輸出回饋振模控制隔震系統---------------------------------37
3.5.5 頻率比分析---------------------------------------------------------------------37
3.6 結 論---------------------------------------------------------------------------------39
第四章 勁度可控式隔震系統--------------------------------------------------------------40
4.1 引言-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------40
4.2 SCIS 配合LQR 控制律------------------------------------------------------------41
4.2.1 數值模擬結果------------------------------------------------------------------41
4.2.2 遲滯迴圈之比較---------------------------------------------------------------41
4.2.3 近遠域震波下之隔震結構反應---------------------------------------------42
4.2.4 小結------------------------------------------------------------------------------44
4.3 SCIS 配合直接輸出回饋振模控制律------------------------------------------44
4.3.1 數值模擬結果------------------------------------------------------------------45
4.3.2 遲滯迴圈之比較---------------------------------------------------------------46
4.3.3 近遠域震波下之隔震結構反應---------------------------------------------46
4.3.4 小結------------------------------------------------------------------------------47
4.4 SCIS 配合多步幅直接回饋振模控制律---------------------------------------48
4.4.1 數值模擬結果------------------------------------------------------------------48
4.4.2 遲滯迴圈之比較---------------------------------------------------------------48
4.4.3 近遠域震波下之隔震結構反應---------------------------------------------49
4.4.4 小結------------------------------------------------------------------------------50
4.5 頻率比分析--------------------------------------------------------------------------50
4.6 綜合討論-----------------------------------------------------------------------------52
第五章 槓桿式SCIS 隔震機制之構想---------------------------------------------------53
5.1 引言-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------53
5.2 機構之簡介--------------------------------------------------------------------------53
5.3 機構運動方程式之推導-----------------------------------------------------------54
5.4 控制機制-----------------------------------------------------------------------------56
5.5 數值模擬結果與討論--------------------------------------------------------------57
5.6 綜合討論-----------------------------------------------------------------------------58
第六章 結論與建議--------------------------------------------------------------------------60
6.1 結論-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------60
6.2 建議-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------62
參考文獻-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------237
附錄A 多步幅加速度輸出回饋振模控制---------------------------------------------241
附錄B 數值方法之驗證 - 模擬被動變頻式隔震系統 --------------------------267
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