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研究生:洪福基
研究生(外文):Fu-Ji Hong
論文名稱:溫度對轉軸轉盤系統振動特性之影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effect of Temperature on Vibrational Characteristics of a Shaft-Disk System
指導教授:蘇啟宗
指導教授(外文):Chih-Tsong Su
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄第一科技大學
系所名稱:機械與自動化工程所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:轉子振動溫度相角
外文關鍵詞:vibrationtemperaturephaserotor
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許多轉動機器的轉軸均在高溫環境下操作運轉,甚至溫度呈階段性的遞增或遞減,由於溫度及負載的變化,轉軸轉盤的動態特性亦受到影響,本文探討溫度對轉軸轉盤振動特性的影響,運用能量法導出轉盤與轉軸系統受不同溫度的運動方程式,並置轉盤與轉軸於不同溫度下,架設位移規與鍵相(Keyphaser)量測振幅與相角的變化,同時由理論與實驗來了解不同的溫度對振幅或相位的關係。
結果得知,溫度變化對振幅並無明顯增減,而相角卻有明顯的變化,運轉在臨界轉速以下時,相角隨溫度的上升明顯增大,隨溫度下降明顯地減小;運轉在臨界轉速以上時,相角卻隨溫度的增加反而明顯地減小,隨溫度下降明顯地增大,與運轉在臨界轉速以下時恰好相反,而且運轉速度越接近臨界轉速,相角變化越大。因此利用相角做相關的應用,必須注意轉軸溫度的變化,以避免作出錯誤的判斷而造成不必要的損失。
A lot of rotors of rotary machine running under the high-temperature environment, even temperature of rotors does increase progressively or decrease progressively. Because of the change of the temperature and load, the dynamic characteristics of the shaft and disk is also influenced. This paper discusses the effect of dynamic characteristics of the rotor various temperature. For understand relationship of different temperature to vibration amplitude or phase by way of theory and experiment at the same time, It used energy method derive motion equation of rotor and disk that under different temperature, and heat the rotor under various temperature with the heating device, set up the proximitor and keyphaser to measure vibration amplitude and phase.
We learns the following from the result. The vibrational amplitude hasn’t increase or decrease obviously due to temperature change, but phase has obvious changes. the system operates below the critical speed, the phase increases with the rising of temperature obviously, reduce with the drop of temperature obviously; Instead, the system operating over critical speed, the phase decreases with the rising of temperature obviously , increases with the drop of temperature obviously, with operate under the critical rotational speed just the oppositly; And it is near to the critical speed, the phase is the greater in change. Consequently, if we use the phase to do relevant application, it need to pay attention to the variation of the shaft temperature to avoid making the wrong judgement and cause unnecessary losses .
目錄
摘要 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- i
ABSTRACT ----------------------------------------------------------------------- ii
誌謝 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- iv
目錄 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- v
表目錄 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- viii
圖目錄 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- ix
符號說明 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- xiii
第一章 緒論 ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
1.1 前言 -------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
1.2 文獻回顧 --------------------------------------------------------------- 2
1.3 研究目標與方法----------------------------------------------- 3
1.4 本文大綱 ---------------------------------------------------- 4
第二章 轉軸-轉盤系統之理論與數學模型 ------------------- 6
2.1 轉盤 ---------------------------------------------------------------- 6
2.1.1 轉盤的性質 ------------------------------------------------------ 6
2.1.2 轉盤的有限元素 ---------------------------------------------- 8
2.2 轉軸 ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 8
2.2.1轉軸性質 -------------------------------------------------------- 8
2.2.2 轉軸的有限元素------------------------------------------------- 12
2.3 軸承 -------------------------------------------------------------------- 18
2.4 質量不平衡 ------------------------------------------------------------ 19
2.5 系統運動方程式 ----------------------------------------------------- 20
2.6 不平衡作用力與系統響應 ----------------------------------------- 20
2.7 轉軸-轉盤系統之例子 ----------------------------------------------- 24
第三章 實驗與設備 ---------------------------------------------------------- 27
3.1實驗規劃 -------------------------------------------------------------- 27
3.2實驗步驟 -------------------------------------------------------------- 27
3.3 實驗設備 ------------------------------------------------------------- 28
3.3.1 轉動系統 -------------------------------------------------------- 28
3.3.2 驅動系統 -------------------------------------------------------- 29
3.3.3 量測系統 -------------------------------------------------------- 29
3.3.4 加熱系統 -------------------------------------------------------- 31
3.3.5 實驗設備的組合配置 ----------------------------------------- 31
第四章 ANSYS模態分析 ---------------------------------------------------- 32
4.1 誤差比較 ------------------------------------------------------------- 32
4.2 旋振頻率圖(Campbell Diagram) ------------------------------------ 32
4.3 模擬溫度改變 --------------------------------------------------------- 33
第五章 結果與討論 ---------------------------------------------------------- 35
5.1 ANSYS分析結果討論 ---------------------------------------------- 35
5.2實驗結果討論 ------------------------------------------------------ 35
第六章 結論 -------------------------------------------------------------------- 38
6.1 結論 ------------------------------------------------------------------- 38
6.2 未來展望 ------------------------------------------------------------- 39
參考文獻 ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 40
附錄A 各章之圖表------------------------------------------------------------ 43
附錄B 轉子振動量測實務 ------------------------------------------------- 78
B.1 轉子的同步響應------------------------------------------------------- 78
B.2 振動感測器------------------------------------------------------------- 82
B.2.1 位移型 --------------------------------------------------------- 82
B.2.2 速度型 ----------------------------------------------------------- 84
B.2.3 加速規 --------------------------------------------------------- 85
B.3 位移計的校正 ------------------------------------------------------- 90
附錄C ANSYS工程分析介紹 ---------------------------------------------- 93
C.1 ANSYS簡介 ------------------------------------------------------------ 93
C.2 ANSYS 之基本架構 ------------------------------------------------- 93
C.3 轉子系統的模態分析 ----------------------------------------------- 95
附錄D 實驗所得圖形(部分) ----------------------------------------------- 97
參考文獻
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