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研究生:陳啟明
論文名稱:NF薄膜程序應用於自來水淨水工程之探討
論文名稱(外文):Study of Nanofiltration Membrane Process in Drinking Water Treatment
指導教授:古源光
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:121
中文關鍵詞:NF薄膜前處理阻塞自來水淨水
外文關鍵詞:Nanofiltration membranePretreatmentFoulingTap water treatment
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:21
  • 點閱點閱:683
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  • 下載下載:100
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中文摘要
學號:N9036018
論文名稱:NF薄膜程序應用於自來水淨水工程之探討 頁數:121
學校名稱:國立屏東科技大學 系(所)別:食品科學系(所)碩士班
畢業時間及摘要別:九十二學年度第一學期碩士學位論文摘要
研究生:陳啟明
論文摘要內容:
本研究之目的是利用單管薄膜試驗器(Single Element Bench-Scale Test, SEBST)之設備,探討NF薄膜程序在自來水淨水處理上之應用。單管薄膜試驗是以單管薄膜模組探討pH值、操作壓力、回收率(yield)及掃流速度(Cross flow velocity)等操作參數對NF薄膜程序之影響,同時亦探討不同前處理如傳統處理程序(凝膠、沉澱及砂濾)、1µm過濾及UF (Ultrafiltration)程序對NF薄膜阻塞速率之影響。在試驗過程中,分析進流水(Feed)、出流水(Permeate)及濃縮液(Concentrate)之總有機碳(TOC)、總硬度(Total hardness)及其他水質參數。
研究結果顯示,TOC及總硬度之進流去除率隨pH之增加而上升,但為避免形成碳酸鈣積垢,進流水必須適當加酸以降低pH值。另一方面NF薄膜對於TOC及總硬度之進流去除率隨操作壓力增加而升高,卻隨回收率增高而降低。掃流速度對物種去除率之影響不大,當掃流速度增加時,可減少濃度極化現象(Concentration polarization),即造成較高之通水量(Permeate flux),係因在高掃流速度下形成較少之質量傳送阻力所致。
在不同前處理之試驗中,以傳統處理程序後接UF單元之試程, NF進流水之SDI (Silt Density Index)值可由6.10降至0.55,但阻塞速率並未因UF程序能有效去除膠體粒子而有所改善。膠體粒子並非造成薄膜阻塞之主因,可能與水中溶解性物質有關。從本研究結果分析,證實SDI或改良式阻塞係數(Modified fouling index, MFI)與NF之阻塞速率並無明顯關係。
關鍵字:NF薄膜、前處理、阻塞、自來水淨水。

Abstract
Objectives of this study were to investigate the feasibility of applying nanofiltration (NF) membrane for tap water treatment with a Single Element Bench-Scale Test (SEBST) and to find the optimal process operating conditions. SEBST system was tested for the influencing operating parameters, such as pH, transmembrane pressure, yield, and cross flow velocity on the NF process. Comparisons were also made to find the effects of various pretreatments, such as the conventional tap water treatment process (CTP), 1µm filtration, and ultrafiltration (UF) on NF fouling rate. Total organic carbons (TOC), total hardness and other parameters of feed water, permeate and concentrate were analyzed during the tests as the indicators for water qualities.
Results showed that rejections of TOC and total hardness in feed increased with increasing pH values. However, the feed water should be lowered its pH by adding acid to avoid of CaCO3 fouling. Besides, rejection of TOC and total hardness in feed also increased with increasing applied pressure, but decreased with increasing recovery. The effect of cross flow velocity on the TOC and total hardness rejection was minor. Increasing cross flow velocity helped reducing mass transfer resistance caused by concentration polarization, and hence resulted in higher water permeate flux.
When NF feed water was pretreated by the combination of Ultrafiltration and CTP, SDI of the pretreated water was decreased from 6.1 to 0.55. However, the fouling rate of NF was not improved after UF treatment, although UF pretreatment is sufficient to remove colloids. Since colloids are not the major factor for NF membrane fouling, it might be reasoned that the dissolved substances in water are highly responsible for this phenomenon. Based on this research, it was concluded that SDI and modified fouling index (MFI) were not significantly related to NF fouling rate with the water tested.
Key words:Nanofiltration membrane;Pretreatment;Fouling; Tap
water treatment.

目 錄
中文摘要------------------------------------------------------------- I
英文摘要------------------------------------------------------------- III
致謝------------------------------------------------------------------- V
目錄------------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅵ
表目錄---------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅹ
圖目錄---------------------------------------------------------------- VI
第一章、前言------------------------------------------------------- 1
第二章、文獻回顧------------------------------------------------- 2
2-1薄膜發展歷史---------------------------------------------- 2
2-2薄膜系統介紹---------------------------------------------- 2
2-2-1逆滲透原理-------------------------------------------- 2
2-2-2薄膜種類----------------------------------------------- 3
2-2-3薄膜材質----------------------------------------------- 8
2-2-4薄膜模組----------------------------------------------- 12
2-2-5正交過濾與掃流過濾-------------------------------- 14
2-3薄膜操作之特性------------------------------------------- 17
2-3-1回收率及去除率-------------------------------------- 17
2-3-2水通量-------------------------------------------------- 17
2-3-3薄膜阻塞----------------------------------------------- 17
2-3-3-1膠體阻塞------------------------------------------ 18
2-3-3-2有機物阻塞--------------------------------------- 18
2-3-3-3生物阻塞------------------------------------------ 18
2-3-3-4薄膜積垢------------------------------------------ 19
2-3-3-5阻塞指數------------------------------------------ 20
2-3-4濃度極化----------------------------------------------- 20
2-3-5薄膜壓實----------------------------------------------- 22
2-3-6清水質量傳遞係數----------------------------------- 23
2-4薄膜之前處理---------------------------------------------- 24
2-5薄膜之清洗------------------------------------------------- 25
2-6 NF薄膜對污染物之去除 ------------------------------- 26
2-6-1無機鹽類之去除-------------------------------------- 26
2-6-2有機物之去除----------------------------------------- 26
2-7 NF薄膜之去除機制-------------------------------------- 27
2-7-1篩分作用---------------------------------------------- 27
2-7-2靜電效應---------------------------------------------- 27
2-7-3Donnan effect------------------------------------------ 28
2-7-4溶解擴散效應---------------------------------------- 28
2-8薄膜出流水水質之穩定性------------------------------ 30
2-9均相溶液擴散理論模式與膜理論模式--------------- 31
第三章、實驗設備與方法---------------------------------------- 36
3-1實驗設計流程--------------------------------------------- 36
3-2實驗設備--------------------------------------------------- 36
3-3實驗方法--------------------------------------------------- 44
3-3-1進流水之製取---------------------------------------- 44
3-3-1-1澄清湖淨水處理系統及流程----------------- 44
3-3-1-2拷潭場淨水處理系統及流程---------------- 47
3-3-2單管薄膜試驗之操作方法及歩驟---------------- 47
3-4試驗程序--------------------------------------------------- 50
3-4-1pH對於薄膜表現影響之試程--------------------- 50
3-4-2操作壓力對於薄膜表現影響之試程------------- 51
3-4-3回收率對薄膜表現影響之試程------------------- 51
3-4-4掃流速度對薄膜表現影響之試程---------------- 51
3-4-5前處理對NF薄膜之影響-------------------------- 52
3-4-5-1傳統處理程序對於NF薄膜影響之試驗--- 52
3-4-5-2 1μm過濾對於NF薄膜影響之試驗-------- 52
3-4-5-3 UF程序對於NF薄膜影響之試驗--------- 53
3-5各項水質參數之分析------------------------------------- 53
3-5-1鹼度----------------------------------------------------- 53
3-5-2導電度及pH值--------------------------------------- 56
3-5-3總硬度-------------------------------------------------- 56
3-5-4鈣硬度-------------------------------------------------- 57
3-5-5總溶解固體物----------------------------------------- 58
3-5-6濁度----------------------------------------------------- 58
3-5-7UV254吸光值-------------------------------------------- 59
3-5-8總有機碳----------------------------------------------- 59
3-5-9總三鹵甲烷------------------------------------------ 60
3-5-10阻塞指數-------------------------------------------- 61
3-5-10-1 SDI---------------------------------------------- 61
3-5-10-2 MFI----------------------------------------------- 61
第四章、結果與討論-------------------------------------------- 64
4-1各項操作參數對於NF薄膜表現之影響---------- 64
4-1-1pH---------------------------------------------------- 64
4-1-2操作壓力------------------------------------------- 68
4-1-3回收率---------------------------------------------- 71
4-1-4掃流速度------------------------------------------- 75
4-2前處理對NF薄膜之影響------------------------------ 81
4-2-1傳統處理程序--------------------------------------- 81
4-2-2傳統處理程序+1μm過濾------------------------ 83
4-2-3傳統處理程序+UF單元--------------------------- 85
4-3前處理對於NF薄膜影響之探討--------------------- 87
4-3-1不同前處理對水質的影響------------------------ 89
4-3-2阻塞速率與阻塞參數關係之探討--------------- 91
4-3-2-1SDI與MFI值之變化------------------------- 91
4-3-2-2SDI及MFI與NF薄膜阻塞速率之關係-- 91
第五章、結論------------------------------------------------------- 97
參考文獻------------------------------------------------------------- 99
附錄------------------------------------------------------------------ 108
表目錄
表2-1 各種薄膜之分類與特性----------------------------------------------5
表2-2 MF與微生物之大小-------------------------------------------------6
表2-3 各種薄膜適用之壓力-------------------------------------------------7
表2-4 有機薄膜之特性--------------------------------------------- ---------11
表3-1 SEBST試驗NF薄膜之特性--------------------------------------43
表3-2 水質分析項目及方法------------------------------------------------55
表4-1各水質參數在不同掃流速度下之質量傳送速度(Ks)---79
表4-2不同水源及各前處理程序之流程-------------------------------82
表4-11不同前處理單元後之阻塞指數與阻塞速率值-----------101
圖目錄
圖2-1 滲透、平衡及逆滲透示意圖 --------------------------------------4
圖2-2 Polyamide分子構造圖-----------------------------------------------10
圖2-3 薄膜組件型式-----------------------------------------------------------13
圖2-4 正交過濾模式圖--------------------------------------------------------15
圖2-5 掃流過濾模式圖--------------------------------------------------------16
圖2-6 膠體極化層及濃度梯示意圖---------------------------------------21
圖2-7 NF薄膜表面示意圖---------------------------------------------------32
圖3-1 實驗設計流程圖--------------------------------------------------------37
圖3-2 薄膜實驗設備圖--------------------------------------------------------38
圖3-3 匣式過濾器---------------------------------------------------------------39
圖3-4 單管薄膜系統設備流程圖------------------------------------------41
圖3-5 NF薄膜組件設備圖----------------------------------------------------42
圖3-6 澄清湖淨水場淨水處理流程圖-----------------------------------45
圖3-7 澄清湖淨水場取水口-------------------------------------------------46
圖3-8 拷潭淨水場淨水處理流程圖---------------------------------------48
圖3-9 拷潭高級淨水處理模場----------------------------------------------54
圖3-10 MFI之曲線圖-----------------------------------------------------------63
圖4-1 擬穩定狀態-累積操作時間與導電度關係圖--------------65
圖4-2 進流水pH值與各水質參數進流去除率間之關係--------68
圖4-3 不同操作壓力下,各水質參數進流去除率之關係
(掃流速度0.10m /s)-- -------- ----------------------------------------69
圖4-4 不同操作壓力下,各水質參數進流去除率之關係
(掃流速度0.15m /s)---- ---------------------------------------------70
圖4-5 操作壓力與水通量之關係圖--------------------------------------72
圖4-6 回收率與進流去除率關係圖--------------------------------------73
圖4-7 回收率與整體去除率關係圖--------------------------------------74
圖4-8 Cross-flow velocity與各水質參數
進流去除率間之關係-------------------------------------------------76
圖4-9 Cross-flow velocity與水通量之關係圖-----------------------78
圖4-10 溶質質量傳遞係數(Ks)與進流去除率間之關係圖------80
圖4-11 質量傳遞係數(MTCw)與操作時間之關係圖
(前處理為傳統處理程序)---- --------------------------------------84
圖4-12 質量傳遞係數(MTCw)與操作時間之關係圖
(前處理為傳統處理程序+1μm過濾)------- -----------------86
圖4-13 質量傳遞係數(MTCw)與操作時間之關係圖
(前處理為傳統處理程序+UF程序)-- -------------------------88
圖4-14 不同前處理下TOC、UV254及總硬度之進流去除率
之比較---------------------------------------------------------------------89
圖4-15 不同前處理單元後SDI及MFI之比較-----------------------92
圖4-16 MFI與SDI之關係圖-----------------------------------------------94
圖4-17 SDI及MFI與阻塞速率之關係圖-----------------------------95

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