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研究生:陳淑華
研究生(外文):Shu-Hua Chen
論文名稱:乾雞糞施用之永續經營法
論文名稱(外文):Using Dry Poultry Manure as Sustainable Management Practices
指導教授:邱瑞宇邱瑞宇引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ruey-Yeu Chiou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與科學系
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:128
中文關鍵詞:乾雞糞雞糞堆肥施用量施肥法氨氣逸散土壤肥力
外文關鍵詞:Dry poultry manurePoultry compostApplication rateApplication methodAmmonia emissionSoil fertility.
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肥料法規規定禽畜糞應經充份醱酵腐熟為堆肥施用,但農民鑑於成本及方便性,喜好施用未經醱酵的雞糞,因此本研究目的即以盆栽及田間試驗為乾雞糞找尋合理施用量及施肥方法,達作物最佳肥效且避免作物毒害,減少環境污染。
施用乾雞糞在施用量上面,以氮肥含量為基準換算為所得的施肥推薦量,盆栽施用5 g/kg,田間施用10 T/ha,是符合植物營養,且比堆肥或化肥好或者至少效果一樣,若為增產可提高至約2倍,不宜再增加,因不合乎投資報酬率,且會有植物毒害現象發生;亦有可能污染地下水源。
田間採溝施方式施肥,溝間土壤性質在pH、電導度及有機質,變化幅度都比植株間土壤大,而隨乾雞糞或雞糞堆肥施用量增加,土壤的有機質、pH都升高,但是乾雞糞施用高量100 T/ha時,溝間土壤電導度高達5.88 dS m-1,已超過4 dS m-1對植物造成鹽害,但此時植株間土壤電導度最高3 dS m-1,顯示乾雞糞以溝施田間種植作物,對作物較不易產生毒害或鹽害問題。盆栽試驗施用乾雞糞當基肥,分別施入10、20、30天或添加分解促進菌施入10天後,另外只添加分解促進菌施入後立即移植青江白菜,發現以上試驗處理在收穫鮮重及植體營養與乾雞糞施用後立即種植且不添加分解促進劑的處理比較,差異都不大。而不同的基肥天數( 7,14天)的影響在田間試驗也相似。因此只要在適當用量下,施用後立即種植或基肥數天後種植都可以,且不需加分解促進劑。
在植物毒害方面,施用乾雞糞在作物植體鋅濃度比施相同量雞糞堆肥稍高,銅含量則都很低,但所有處理都在植體營養正常濃度範圍,沒有重金屬累積的問題。
在環境衛生方面,乾雞糞直接施於盆栽土壤下層8 cm,施用量100 g/kg時,氨氣釋放濃度比混合施用降低一半,在施用量50 g/kg以下,不會孳生蒼蠅。以溝施覆土法乾雞糞施入田間後5天期間,大氣中氨氣釋放濃度皆在0.15 mg/L以下,遠比法規標準1 mg/L低。
乾雞糞以這種方式替代雞糞堆肥直接施用在田間,可以是合理、安全、衛生的廢棄物處理法。
Abstract
The regulations manure regulate that the manure of poultry or/and livestock should be complete fermented and rotted for the preparation and use of compost. However, many farmers prefer to use unfermented poultry manure as fertilizer because of its cost and convenience. For the sake of farmers, the purpose of this research is to find out the reasonable application rate and method of dry poultry manure to obtain the best fertility for the plants, void its bane for plants and human beings, and reduce its environmental pollution.
The suggested application rate of dry poultry manure is based on the its content of nitrogen. That 5 g/kg is applied to the pot or 10 T/ha is applied to the field reaches the nutritional standards for plants, and its fertility is better than, at least the same as, those applying compost or chemical fertilizer. The application rate may be about double for more production. More than that is not appropriate for its production, and its side-effects: the plant blastment and the possibility of the pollution of the underground water.
Applying the dry poultry manure in the acequia between two row in field. The changing ranges on the pH value, conductivity, and the quantity of organic matter the soil in acequia are larger than those of the soil between two plants. The more the application rate of the dry poultry manure or the poultry compost, the higher the quantity of organic matter and pH value of the soil. When the application rate of the dry poultry manure is up to 100 T/ha, the conductivity of the soil in the acequia is high to 5.88 dS m-1, which is above 4 dSm-1 and causes salinization for the plants. However, the conductivity of the soil between two plants has its highest value of 3 dS m-1. It shows that application of the dry poultry manure is not relatively easy to have the problems about the plant blastment or salinization for the plants if is used. There are no large differences between applying bio-agent to the dry poultry manure or with the application day(0, 10, 20, 30days) before planting in the pot experiment. There is same effect on various application day(0, 7, 14days)of corn field experiment. Therefore, the ways may be used as long as the application rate of the dry poultry manure is appropriate, and the addition of bio-agent is not necessary.
With respect to the plant blastment is in the normal ranges for all and without the plant toxic problems on accumulation of heavy metals. Especially the concentrations of copper in the plant are very low for both applications of the dry poultry manure and of poultry compost although the concentration of zinc in the plant is a little higher for the former.
In the aspect of environmental sanitary, the for 100 g/kg of the dry poultry manure that ammonium gas concentration is directly applied in 8 cm from the ground is half of the of mixed application. It will not attract fly when the application rate is 50 g/kg or below. During the 5-day period after applied the dry poultry manure into the field by using in the acequia and bespreading soil. The concentration ammonia in air is all under 0.15 mgL-1, which is far under the legal standard 1 mgL-1.
In conclusion, the above application method of the dry poultry manure, instead of the poultry compost, directly into the field can be a reasonable, safe and hygienic method of recycling.
中文摘要.............……........................Ⅰ
英文摘要.........................................III
誌 謝………………………………………………………V
目 錄..........................................VI
表 目 錄………………………………………………………XI
圖 目 錄………………………………………………………XIII
附錄目錄………………………………………………………XVII
第一章 前言.............................. .........1
第二章 文獻回顧 ....................... ........3
2.1台灣土壤對有機質的需求………………………………………3
2.2 禽畜糞肥料產量…................................… 4
2.3鮮雞糞用途……….................………..…………. 5
2.4堆肥的推廣………………………………………………. 6
2.5鮮雞糞與堆肥的比較...........………………………… 7
2.5.1營養成分……………………………………………………. 8
2.5.2 對植物的毒害…………………………………………… 8
2.5.3價格………………………………………………………… 9
2.5.4環境衛生及品質問題…………………………… 9
2.6肥料管理法規對禽畜糞有機肥的要求…………………………11
2.7有機肥對土壤的影響……………………………………………11
第三章 材料與方法…………………………………………………14
3.1青江白菜盆栽試驗………………………………………………14
3.1.1盆栽試驗材料……………………………………………… 14
3.1.2乾雞糞施用法盆栽試驗…………………………………… 17
3.1.3盆栽試驗採樣及樣品處理………………………………… 20
3.2蒼蠅及氨氣釋放試驗……………………………………………20
3.2.1蒼蠅及氨氣釋放試驗材料………………………………… 20
3.2.2蒼蠅捕獲法及氨氣釋放……… ………………………….. 20
3.3玉米田間試驗……………………………………………………23
3.3.1田間試驗材料……………………………………………… 23
3.3.2乾雞糞施用肥效紅壤玉米田間試驗……………………… 23
3.3.3田間試驗採樣及樣品處理………………………………… 25
3.4空氣品質調查(氨氣檢測)………………………………………29
3.4.1氨氣檢測材料……………………………………………… 29
3.4.2採樣時間及地點…………………………………………… 30
3.5分析方法…………………………………………………………31
3.5.1土壤分析…………………………………………………… 31
3.5.2有機肥料分析……………………………………………… 32
3.5.3植體分析…………………………………………………… 34
3.5.4環境衛生評估試驗………………………………………… 35
3.6統計軟體…………………………………………………………36
第四章 結果討論……………………………………………………37
4.1有機資材基本成分分析…………………………………………37
4.2青江白菜盆栽試驗………………………………………………38
4.2.1不同施肥處理對青江白菜生長及收穫量的影響…………38
4.2.2不同施肥處理對青江白菜植體氮、磷濃度及吸收量的影響……43
4.2.2.1不同施肥處理對青江白菜植體總氮吸收量及濃度的影響……43
4.2.2.2不同施肥處理對青江白菜植體總磷濃度及吸收量的影響……48
4.2.3不同施肥處理對青江白菜植體鉀、鈣、鎂濃度及吸收量的影響…49
4.2.4不同施肥處理對青江白菜植體銅、鋅吸收量及濃度的影響………55
4.2.5不同施肥處理對青江白菜收穫後土壤性質的影響……... 57
4.2.5.1對收穫後土壤pH的影響…………………………. 57
4.2.5.2對收穫後土壤電導度的影響……………………… 57
4.2.5.3對收穫後土壤有機質的影響……………………… 59
4.2.5.4對收穫後土壤氮含量的影響……………………… 59
4.2.5.5不同施肥處理對青江白菜收穫後土壤交換性鉀、鈣、鎂的影響60
4.2.6施用不同乾雞糞處理盆栽之蒼蠅及氨氣試驗………….… 62
4.3玉米田間試驗……………………………………………………66
4.3.1不同施肥處理對土壤基本性質的影響…………………... 66
4.3.1.1對土壤pH的影響…………………………………. 66
4.3.1.2對土壤有機質的影響……………………………… 72
4.3.1.3對土壤電導度的影響………………………………. 74
4.3.2施用不同有機肥於紅壤對玉米生長之影響…………….… 78
4.3.2.1對玉米存活率的影響………………………………. 78
4.3.2.2對玉米株高、鮮重、乾重及玉米收穫產量的影響. 79
4.3.3施用不同有機肥料對玉米植株總氮及總磷濃度及吸收量之影響…82
4.3.4不同施肥處理對玉米植體鉀、鈣、鎂濃度及吸收量的影響……86
4.3.5不同施肥處理對玉米植體鐵、錳濃度及吸收量的影響.… 91
4.3.6不同施肥處理對玉米植體銅、鋅濃度的影響……………. 94
4.3.7玉米田間實驗空氣品質調查……………………………... 95
第五章 結 論..................97
參考文獻 ..........................101
附 錄...........................108
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