跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.221.70.232) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/05/21 05:47
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:陳大鈞
研究生(外文):Ta-Chun Chen
論文名稱:犬瘟熱病毒H基因之分子選殖與表現
論文名稱(外文):Molecular Cloning and Expression of the Hemagglutinin ( H ) Gene of the Canine Distemper Virus
指導教授:廖明輝廖明輝引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming-Huei Liao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:獸醫學系
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:CDV犬瘟熱H基因反轉錄聚合酶鏈反應分子選殖基因表現
外文關鍵詞:CDVCanine DistemperHemagglutininRT-PCRMolecular CloningGene Expression
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:5
  • 點閱點閱:299
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:26
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
犬瘟熱(canine distemper, CD)1760年首度出現於歐洲,而其致病病原為犬瘟熱病毒(canine distemper virus , CDV)卻直到1906年才被Carre分離且鑑定。本病毒為一種高接觸性傳染性病毒性病原,犬科為主要被感染動物,好發於3~6月齡的幼犬,但是全年齡層的犬隻也會遭受感染,其中急性至亞急性的致死率高。臨床上典型的特徵可見發熱、食慾不振、鼻黏液化膿性分泌物、結合膜炎及下痢;但有些動物可見皮膚有膿疱、角化過度及神經症狀,造成患犬全身性或中樞性神經系統疾病;有報告指出CDV之基因遺傳性已不同於疫苗株,會使已預防注射的狗遭受感染。而且發現高度的抗原變異性是在H基因,因此本研究以H基因設計特異性引子對增幅此片段,以反轉錄聚合酶鏈反應(RT-PCR)增幅片段為825 bp,將PCR產物經純化後定序,並將其序列與GenBank中的CDV序列作比對後,再將基因分別選殖入pET32a表現載體中進行基因表現,表現之粗製蛋白質以HiTrap Chelating HP純化管柱純化,經SDS-PAGE、immunodotting test及Western blotting分析確認後,以基因表現方法大量生產具有特異性之蛋白質,以提供未來診斷試劑之用。
Canine distemper (CD) appears since 1760 in Europe, but canine distemper virus (CDV) was identified in 1906. CDV is a highly contagious viral pathogen, which is a very important viral pathogen of dogs. It often infect 3~6 month old puppies, but all ages dogs of could also be infected causing acute to subacute systemic diseases with high mortality rates develop. Targets of infection for CDV are mainly mucous membranes and lymphoid tissues throughout the body; thus, the disease is typically characterized by manifestations of pyrexia, anorexia, nasal mucopurulent discharge, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea. Skin pustules, hyperkeratosis, and central nervous system signs are also seen in some dogs. Several papers pointed out that nucleotide sequence analysis of actual field viruses had undergone significant genetic changes relatived to currently used vaccine strains, and CDV strains genetically different from vaccine strains may have caused the disease in vaccinated dogs, and the highest antigenic variation has been found in the H gene. Therefore, the goal of this study is to clone and express the partial H gene of CDV from the CD vaccine strain, and to identify the variation of H gene of vaccine strains and wild type strains of CDV in Taiwan. The partial H gene was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with specific primer, then the sequenced and cloned into pET32a expression vector. Purified crude protein was checked by SDS-PAGE, immunodotting test and Western blotting assay by polyclonal antibodies produced in rabbit. In the result, dot blotting assay idicated that the antibodies could specific bind with the protein that we expressed and with protein from CDV vaccine.
中文摘要…………………………………………………………………. I
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………. III
誌謝………………………………………………………………………. IV
目錄………………………………………………………………………. V
圖索引……………………………………………………………………. V III
第一章 緒言……………………………………………………………. 1
第二章 文獻探討..……………………………………………………... 3
2.1 犬瘟熱病毒之歷史背景與流行病學…………………………….. 3
2.2 犬瘟熱病毒之病毒特性………………………………………….. 4
2.2.1犬瘟熱病毒之H基因………………………………………… 7
2.3 犬瘟熱病毒之致病機轉………………………………………….. 8
2.4 犬瘟熱病毒感染之臨床症狀…………………………………….. 10
2.5 犬瘟熱病毒感染之診斷………………………………………….. 12
第三章 材料與方法……………………………………………………. 17
3.1 實驗材料……………………………………...............…………... 17
3.2 犬瘟熱病毒核酸之萃取………………………………………….. 17
3.3 反轉錄反應(reverse transcription)…………………………… 18
3.4 引子對的設計…………………………………………………….. 19
3.5 聚合酶鏈反應(polymerase chain reaction, PCR)……………… 19
3.6 基因選殖………………………………………………………….. 21
3.6.1 表現載體之製備……………………………………………... 21
3.6.2 勝任細胞之製備……………………………. ………………. 23
3.6.3 CDVH標的基因(insert DNA)之純化……………………… 23
3.6.4 接合作用(ligation)……..…………………………………. 24
3.6.5 轉形作用(transformation)………………………………… 24
3.6.6 篩選(screening)…………………………………………… 25
3.6.7 質體純化………………………………………….………….. 25
3.6.8 核酸定序(sequencing)及分析…………….……………… 26
3.7 增幅CDVH基因之敏感性試驗………………………………… 27
3.8 以聚合酶鏈反應檢測犬瘟熱病毒感染…………………………..
28
3.9 重組CDVH基因之蛋白質表現與分析…………………………. 28
3.9.1 重組CDVH基因之蛋白質表現…………………………….. 28
3.9.2 重組CDVH基因蛋白質之SDS-PAGE電泳分析………….. 29
3.9.3 重組CDVH基因蛋白質之萃取及純化…………………….. 30
3.10 特異性6X His-Tagged Protein染色……………………………. 31
3.11 重組蛋白質濃度測定……………………………………………. 31
3.12 抗體之製備……………………………………………………… 32
3.13 免疫墨點法(Immunoblotting)……………………………….. 32
3.14 西方免疫轉漬法之抗原性分析………………………………… 33
3.14.1 CDVH特異性抗體之檢測………………………………….. 33
3.14.2 感染CDV犬隻之血清檢測………………………………… 34
第四章 結果……………………………………………………………... 36
4.1 重組質體(pET32a-CDVH)之構築及限制酶確認……………. 36
4.2 核酸序列定序分析……………………………………………….. 36
4.3 增幅CDVH基因之敏感性試驗…………………………………. 37
4.4 以聚合酶鏈反應檢測犬瘟熱病毒感染………………………….. 45
4.5 CDVH重組蛋白之表現及純化……….………………………….. 45
4.6 特異性6X His-tagged protein染色分析………………………… 50
4.7 抗體製備與免疫墨點法之分析………………………………….. 50
4.8 西方免疫轉漬法之抗原性分析………………………………….. 53
4.8.1 CDVH特異性抗體之檢測…………………………………… 53
4.8.2 感染CDV患犬血清之檢測…………………………………. 53
第五章 討論……………………………………………………………. 56
第六章 參考文獻………………………………………………………. 62
第七章 附錄……………………………………………………………. 74
7.1 溶液的配製……………………………………………………….. 74
7.2 製備勝任細胞之試劑…………………………………………….. 80
7.3 大腸桿菌系統表現外來基因流程圖……………………………..
82
7.4 pET32a-CDVH質體之構築……………………………………..... 83
作者簡介…………………………………………………………………. 84
圖索引
圖1、犬瘟熱病毒模式圖………………………………………………… 5
圖2、犬瘟熱病毒基因模式圖…………………………………………… 5
圖3、犬瘟熱病毒致病機轉模式圖……………………………………… 15
圖4、犬瘟熱病毒複製模式圖……………………………………………. 16
圖5、CDVH基因之PCR電泳分析圖…………………………………..
38
圖6、pET32a-CDVH表現質體以限制酶BamH I與Xho I切割後之
電泳分析圖…………………………………………………………
39
圖7、CDVH基因序列比對分析圖……………………………………..
40
圖8、CDVH基因序列比對親緣關係樹狀圖………………………….. 42
圖9、CDVH基因序列相似度比對圖…………………………………..
….. 42
圖10、CDVH胺基酸序列比對分析圖………………………………… 43
圖11、增幅CDVH基因敏感性試驗之電泳分析圖…………………… 44
圖12、聚合酶鏈反應檢測犬瘟熱病毒感染之電泳分析圖……………...
46
圖13、粗製CDVH融合蛋白陰性對照SDS-PAGE電泳分析圖………
47
圖14、粗製CDVH融合蛋白之SDS-PAGE電泳分析圖……………… 48
圖15、純化後之CDVH融合蛋白SDS-PAGE電泳分析圖…………… 49
圖16、重組蛋白於SDS-PAGE之特異性6X His-tagged protein染色
圖…………………………………………………………………… 51
圖17、CDVH基因免疫墨點分析圖…………………………………… 52
圖18、CDVH特異性抗體之西方轉漬法分析圖………………………… 54
圖19、感染CDV患犬血清之西方轉漬法分析圖……………………….. 55
吳憲青、闕玲玲、龐飛、鄭謙仁、李進成、劉振軒(2000)。應用形態病理學與反轉錄聚合酶鏈反應診斷台灣地區犬瘟熱病毒之感染。中華獸醫誌26: 328-338。
劉振軒(1989)。小動物145個解剖例之病因分析。水產動物疾病臨床研習會暨小動物臨床病理討論會。29-32.
潘明正、蔡向榮(1993)。簡明家畜傳染病學197-198。
Alldinger, S., Baumgartner, W., van Moll, P. & Orvell, C. (1993). In vivo and in vitro expression of canine distemper viral proteins in dogs and non-domestic carnivores. Arch Virol 132, 421-8.
Alleman, A. R., Christopher, M. M., Steiner, D. A. & Homer, B. L. (1992). Identification of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in mononuclear cells from the cerebrospinal fluid of a dog with canine distemper. Vet Pathol 29, 84-5.
Appel, M. J., Pearce-Kelling, S. & Summers, B. A. (1992). Dog lymphocyte cultures facilitate the isolation and growth of virulent canine distemper virus. J Vet Diagn Invest 4, 258-63.
Appel, M. J., Reggiardo, C., Summers, B. A., Pearce-Kelling, S., Mare, C. J., Noon, T. H., Reed, R. E., Shively, J. N. & Orvell, C. (1991). Canine distemper virus infection and encephalitis in javelinas (collared peccaries). Arch Virol 119, 147-52.
Appel, M. J. & Summers, B. A. (1995). Pathogenicity of morbilliviruses for terrestrial carnivores. Vet Microbiol 44, 187-91.
Barrett, T., Visser, I. K., Mamaev, L., Goatley, L., van Bressem, M. F. & Osterhaust, A. D. (1993). Dolphin and porpoise morbilliviruses are genetically distinct from phocine distemper virus. Virology 193, 1010-2.
Beauverger, P., Cardoso, A. I., Daviet, L., Buckland, R. & Wild, T. F. (1996). Analysis of the contribution of CTL epitopes in the immunobiology of morbillivirus infection. Virology 219, 133-9.
Blixenkrone-Moller, M. (1993). Biological properties of phocine distemper virus and canine distemper virus. APMIS Suppl 36, 1-51.
Blixenkrone-Moller, M., Svansson, V., Appel, M., Krogsrud, J., Have, P. & Orvell, C. (1992). Antigenic relationships between field isolates of morbilliviruses from different carnivores. Arch Virol 123, 279-94.
Blixenkrone-Moller, M., Svansson, V., Have, P., Orvell, C., Appel, M., Pedersen, I. R., Dietz, H. H. & Henriksen, P. (1993). Studies on manifestations of canine distemper virus infection in an urban dog population. Vet Microbiol 37, 163-73.
Botteron, C., Zurbriggen, A., Griot, C. & Vandevelde, M. (1992). Canine distemper virus-immune complexes induce bystander degeneration of oligodendrocytes. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 83, 402-7.
Burge, T., Griot, C., Vandevelde, M. & Peterhans, E. (1989). Antiviral antibodies stimulate production of reactive oxygen species in cultured canine brain cells infected with canine distemper virus. J Virol 63, 2790-7.
Carre, H. (1906). Sur la maladie de chiens. Res Vet Sci 83, 389.
Curran, M. D., Clarke, D. K. & Rima, B. K. (1991). The nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the attachment protein H of canine distemper virus. J Gen Virol 72 ( Pt 2), 443-7.
Ek-Kommonen, C., Sihvonen, L., Pekkanen, K., Rikula, U. & Nuotio, L. (1997). Outbreak off canine distemper in vaccinated dogs in Finland. Vet Rec 141, 380-3.
Evans, M. B., Bunn, T. O., Hill, H. T. & Platt, K. B. (1991). Comparison of in vitro replication and cytopathology caused by strains of canine distemper virus of vaccine and field origin. J Vet Diagn Invest 3, 127-32.
Fankhauser, R. (1982). [Canine distemper--the history of a disease]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 124, 245-56.
Frisk, A. L., Konig, M., Moritz, A. & Baumgartner, W. (1999). Detection of canine distemper virus nucleoprotein RNA by reverse transcription-PCR using serum, whole blood, and cerebrospinal fluid from dogs with distemper. J Clin Microbiol 37, 3634-43.
Gaedke, K., Teifke, J. P., Hardt, M., Alldinger, S. & Baumgartner, W. (1995). [Detection of distemper virus N protein RNA in the brain of dogs with spontaneous distemper encephalitis using a digoxigenin-labeled, double-stranded DNA probe for in situ hybridization]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 108, 51-4.
Gaedke, K., Zurbriggen, A. & Baumgartner, W. (1997). In vivo and in vitro detection of canine distemper virus nucleoprotein gene with digoxigenin-labelled RNA, double-stranded DNA probes and oligonucleotides by in situ hybridization. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B 44, 329-40.
Gemma, T., Iwatsuki, K., Shin, Y. S., Yoshida, E., Kai, C. & Mikami, T. (1996a). Serological analysis of canine distemper virus using an immunocapture ELISA. J Vet Med Sci 58, 791-4.
Gemma, T., Watari, T., Akiyama, K., Miyashita, N., Shin, Y. S., Iwatsuki, K., Kai, C. & Mikami, T. (1996b). Epidemiological observations on recent outbreaks of canine distemper in Tokyo area. J Vet Med Sci 58, 547-50.
Green, C. E. & Appel, M. J. (1998). Infectious diseases of the dog and cat II. In Canine distemper, pp. 9-22, 226-241. WB Saunders, Philadelphia.
Griot, C., Burge, T., Brigger, S., Richard, A., Peterhans, E. & Vandevelde, M. (1989). [Macrophages in central nervous canine distemper: friends or foes?]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 131, 351-9.
Haas, L., Hofer, H., East, M., Wohlsein, P., Liess, B. & Barrett, T. (1996). Canine distemper virus infection in Serengeti spotted hyenas. Vet Microbiol 49, 147-52.
Haas, L., Liermann, H., Harder, T. C., Barrett, T., Lochelt, M., von Messling, V., Baumgartner, W. & Greiser-Wilke, I. (1999). Analysis of the H gene, the central untranslated region and the proximal coding part of the F gene of wild-type and vaccine canine distemper viruses. Vet Microbiol 69, 15-8.
Haas, L., Martens, W., Greiser-Wilke, I., Mamaev, L., Butina, T., Maack, D. & Barrett, T. (1997). Analysis of the haemagglutinin gene of current wild-type canine distemper virus isolates from Germany. Virus Res 48, 165-71.
Haines, D. M., Martin, K. M., Chelack, B. J., Sargent, R. A., Outerbridge, C. A. & Clark, E. G. (1999). Immunohistochemical detection of canine distemper virus in haired skin, nasal mucosa, and footpad epithelium: a method for antemortem diagnosis of infection. J Vet Diagn Invest 11, 396-9.
Harder, T. C., Kenter, M., Vos, H., Siebelink, K., Huisman, W., van Amerongen, G., Orvell, C., Barrett, T., Appel, M. J. & Osterhaus, A. D. (1996). Canine distemper virus from diseased large felids: biological properties and phylogenetic relationships. J Gen Virol 77 ( Pt 3), 397-405.
Harder, T. C. & Osterhaus, A. D. (1997). Canine distemper virus--a morbillivirus in search of new hosts? Trends Microbiol 5, 120-4.
Higgins, R. J., Krakowka, S. G., Metzler, A. E. & Koestner, A. (1982). Experimental canine distemper encephalomyelitis in neonatal gnotobiotic dogs. A sequential ultrastructural study. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 57, 287-95.
Hirama, K., Togashi, K., Wakasa, C., Yoneda, M., Nishi, T., Endo, Y., Miura, R., Tsukiyama-Kohara, K. & Kai, C. (2003). Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity specific for hemagglutinin (H) protein of canine distemper virus in dogs. J Vet Med Sci 65, 109-12.
Iwatsuki, K., Ikeda, Y., Ohashi, K., Nakamura, K. & Kai, C. (1999). Establishment of a persistent mutant of canine distemper virus. Microbes Infect 1, 987-91.
Iwatsuki, K., Miyashita, N., Yoshida, E., Gemma, T., Shin, Y. S., Mori, T., Hirayama, N., Kai, C. & Mikami, T. (1997). Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the haemagglutinin (H) proteins of field isolates of canine distemper virus from naturally infected dogs. J Gen Virol 78 ( Pt 2), 373-80.
Iwatsuki, K., Okita, M., Ochikubo, F., Gemma, T., Shin, Y. S., Miyashita, N., Mikami, T. & Kai, C. (1995). Immunohistochemical analysis of the lymphoid organs of dogs naturally infected with canine distemper virus. J Comp Pathol 113, 185-90.
Iwatsuki, K., Tokiyoshi, S., Hirayama, N., Nakamura, K., Ohashi, K., Wakasa, C., Mikami, T. & Kai, C. (2000). Antigenic differences in the H proteins of canine distemper viruses. Vet Microbiol 71, 281-6.
Johnson, R., Glickman, L. T., Emerick, T. J. & Patronek, G. J. (1995). Canine distemper infection in pet dogs: I. Surveillance in Indiana during a suspected outbreak. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 31, 223-9.
Kai, C., Ochikubo, F., Okita, M., Iinuma, T., Mikami, T., Kobune, F. & Yamanouchi, K. (1993). Use of B95a cells for isolation of canine distemper virus from clinical cases. J Vet Med Sci 55, 1067-70.
Kennedy, S., Kuiken, T., Jepson, P. D., Deaville, R., Forsyth, M., Barrett, T., van de Bildt, M. W., Osterhaus, A. D., Eybatov, T., Duck, C., Kydyrmanov, A., Mitrofanov, I. & Wilson, S. (2000). Mass die-Off of Caspian seals caused by canine distemper virus. Emerg Infect Dis 6, 637-9.
kingsbury (1978). Paramyxovirdae. Intervirology 10, 137-52.
Krakowka, S., Olsen, R. G., Axthelm, M. K., Rice, J. & Winters, K. (1982). Canine parvovirus infection potentiates canine distemper encephalitis attributable to modified live-virus vaccine. J Am Vet Med Assoc 180, 137-9.
Lamb, R. L. & Kolakofsky, D. (1996). Paramyxoviridae:The viruses and replication. In Fields virology, 3 edn, pp. 1177-1204. Philadelphia, Lippincott-Raven, PA.
Machida, N., Izumisawa, N., Nakamura, T. & Kiryu, K. (1992). Canine distemper virus infection in a masked palm civet (Paguma larvata). J Comp Pathol 107, 439-43.
Mochizuki, M., Hashimoto, M., Hagiwara, S., Yoshida, Y. & Ishiguro, S. (1999). Genotypes of canine distemper virus determined by analysis of the hemagglutinin genes of recent isolates from dogs in Japan. J Clin Microbiol 37, 2936-42.
Montali, R. J., Bartz, C. R., Teare, J. A., Allen, J. T., Appel, M. J. & Bush, M. (1983). Clinical trials with canine distemper vaccines in exotic carnivores. J Am Vet Med Assoc 183, 1163-7.
Murphy, F. A., Gibbs, E. P. J., Horzinek, M. C. & Studdert, M. J. (1999). Veterinary Viology 3, 411-428.
Mutinelli, F., Vandevelde, M., Griot, C. & Richard, A. (1989). Astrocytic infection in canine distemper virus-induced demyelination. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 77, 333-5.
Orvell, C., Blixenkrone-Moller, M., Svansson, V. & Have, P. (1990). Immunological relationships between phocid and canine distemper virus studied with monoclonal antibodies. J Gen Virol 71 ( Pt 9), 2085-92.
Palmer, D. G., Huxtable, C. R. & Thomas, J. B. (1990). Immunohistochemical demonstration of canine distemper virus antigen as an aid in the diagnosis of canine distemper encephalomyelitis. Res Vet Sci 49, 177-81.
Parks, C. L., Wang, H. P., Kovacs, G. R., Vasilakis, N., Kowalski, J., Nowak, R. M., Lerch, R. A., Walpita, P., Sidhu, M. S. & Udem, S. A. (2002). Expression of a foreign gene by recombinant canine distemper virus recovered from cloned DNAs. Virus Res 83, 131-47.
Patronek, G. J., Glickman, L. T., Johnson, R. & Emerick, T. J. (1995). Canine distemper infection in pet dogs: II. A case-control study of risk factors during a suspected outbreak in Indiana. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 31, 230-5.
Rzezutka, A. & Mizak, B. (2002). Application of N-PCR for diagnosis of distemper in dogs and fur animals. Vet Microbiol 88, 95-103.
Saiki, R. K., Scharf, S., Faloona, F., Mullis, K. B., Horn, G. T., Erlich, H. A. & Arnheim, N. (1985). Enzymatic amplification of beta-globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia. Science 230, 1350-4.
Shin, Y., Mori, T., Okita, M., Gemma, T., Kai, C. & Mikami, T. (1995). Detection of canine distemper virus nucleocapsid protein gene in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells by RT-PCR. J Vet Med Sci 57, 439-45.
Sidhu, M. S., Husar, W., Cook, S. D., Dowling, P. C. & Udem, S. A. (1993). Canine distemper terminal and intergenic non-protein coding nucleotide sequences: completion of the entire CDV genome sequence. Virology 193, 66-72.
Sorjonen, D. C., Cox, N. R. & Swango, L. J. (1989). Electrophoretic determination of albumin and gamma globulin concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid of dogs with encephalomyelitis attributable to canine distemper virus infection: 13 cases (1980-1987). J Am Vet Med Assoc 195, 977-80.
Stephensen, C. B., Welter, J., Thaker, S. R., Taylor, J., Tartaglia, J. & Paoletti, E. (1997). Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection of ferrets as a model for testing Morbillivirus vaccine strategies: NYVAC- and ALVAC-based CDV recombinants protect against symptomatic infection. J Virol 71, 1506-13.
Stettler, M., Beck, K., Wagner, A., Vandevelde, M. & Zurbriggen, A. (1997). Determinants of persistence in canine distemper viruses. Vet Microbiol 57, 83-93.
Summers, B. A. & Appel, M. J. (1994). Aspects of canine distemper virus and measles virus encephalomyelitis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 20, 525-34.
Summers, B. A., Greisen, H. A. & Appel, M. J. (1979). Early events in canine distemper demyelinating encephalomyelitis. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 46, 1-10.
Tipold, A., Pfister, H. & Vandevelde, M. (1993). Determination of the IgG index for the detection of intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis in dogs using an ELISA. Res Vet Sci 54, 40-4.
van Binnendijk, R. S., Poelen, M. C., Kuijpers, K. C., Osterhaus, A. D. & Uytdehaag, F. G. (1990). The predominance of CD8+ T cells after infection with measles virus suggests a role for CD8+ class I MHC-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in recovery from measles. Clonal analyses of human CD8+ class I MHC-restricted CTL. J Immunol 144, 2394-9.
Visser, I. K., van Bressem, M. F., Barrett, T. & Osterhaus, A. D. (1993). Morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals. Vet Res 24, 169-78.
von Messling, V., Zimmer, G., Herrler, G., Haas, L. & Cattaneo, R. (2001). The hemagglutinin of canine distemper virus determines tropism and cytopathogenicity. J Virol 75, 6418-27.
Yoshida, E., Iwatsuki, K., Miyashita, N., Gemma, T., Kai, C. & Mikami, T. (1998). Molecular analysis of the nucleocapsid protein of recent isolates of canine distemper virus in Japan. Vet Microbiol 59, 237-44.
Yoshida, E., Shin, Y. S., Iwatsuki, K., Gemma, T., Miyashita, N., Tomonaga, K., Hirayama, N., Mikami, T. & Kai, C. (1999). Epitopes and nuclear localization analyses of canine distemper virus nucleocapsid protein by expression of its deletion mutants. Vet Microbiol 66, 313-20.
Yoshikawa, Y., Ochikubo, F., Matsubara, Y., Tsuruoka, H., Ishii, M., Shirota, K., Nomura, Y., Sugiyama, M. & Yamanouchi, K. (1989). Natural infection with canine distemper virus in a Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata). Vet Microbiol 20, 193-205.
Zurbriggen, A., Muller, C. & Vandevelde, M. (1993). In situ hybridization of virulent canine distemper virus in brain tissue, using digoxigenin-labeled probes. Am J Vet Res 54, 1457-61.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top