跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.231.230.177) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/04 00:28
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:顏沛逸
研究生(外文):Muse Yen
論文名稱:員工對組織績效評核之公平性認知及其對工作態度之影響--以中部某醫學中心為對象
論文名稱(外文):Impartial Cognizance of Employee to the Organizational Performance Appraisal & the Influence to Employees Working Attitude--The object is the medical Center in Taichung.
指導教授:黃英忠黃英忠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ing-Chung Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:人力資源管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:工作投入分配公平組織承諾績效評核程序公平工作滿足
外文關鍵詞:Distributive justiceJob satisfactionperformance appraisalprocedural justiceOrganization commitmentand Job involvement
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:58
  • 點閱點閱:502
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:175
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:7
論文名稱:員工對組織績效評核之公平性認知及其對工作態度之影響
--以中部某醫學中心為對象 頁數:93
校院系所:國立中山大學人力資源管理研究所
畢業時間及提要別:九十二學年度第一學期碩士學位論文提要
研究生:顏沛逸 指導教授:黃英忠博士
論文提要內容:
績效評核發展迄今已超過七十年以上的歷史,專家學者提出之評核結果與準則也相當多,卻未有企業敢宣稱自己的評核制度十全十美,其原因即在員工本身、組織與社會等主觀因素、外在情境皆能影響績效評核結果。
醫療院所由於教育背景的差異,使得績效評核作業更趨複雜;學者指出超過61%的受僱員工對於績效評核之結果呈現不滿。對組織而言,要判斷績效評核是否具有效用,評核之公平性成為一個很重要的指標。再者許多研究發現,員工對績效考核公平的認知將會影響個人結果及組織結果,包括工作滿足、工作投入、對組織的承諾,對主管的信任等。
因此,本研究係以中部某醫學中心研究對象,調查員工對個案醫院之績效評核制度公平性的認知,以及其對工作態度可能之影響;其中以個人屬性為控制變項、績效考核公平性(包括程序公平、分配公平)為自變項,工作態度(包括工作滿足、組織承諾與工作投入)為依變項,探討個人屬性變項、績效考核公平與工作態度之關係及影響,希冀提供個案醫院評估現行績效評核標準、從事人力資源發展,提昇員工績效之參考。
本研究共發放問卷2,065份,取得有效問卷為1,452份,經由Pearson積差相關、層級複迴歸、典型相關、t檢定與單因子變異數分析等統計分析後,得到重要發現如下:
1.自變項與依變項各構面均呈現顯著正相關,而進一步以典型相關分析探討績效考核公平與工作態度兩組變項之關係程度,其中準則變項(程序結構、客觀原則、意見表達、實際績效、自我評估與決策意見)主要影響到內在滿足、外在滿足、努力承諾、價值承諾、留職承諾等五個預測變項;另外,客觀原則影響價值承諾與留職承諾等二個預測變項。
2.績效考核的程序公平、分配公平與工作態度各構面間,均呈非常顯著正相關及影響力;而自變項對依變項的解釋力比較上:程序公平對組織承諾(價值承諾與留職承諾)之解釋力大於分配公平,餘則以分配公平對工作滿足、工作投入之解釋力較大。由此可見,分配公平對工作滿足與工作投入之解釋上具有其重要性。而程序公平則對組織承諾具有預測力。
3.員工個人屬性上,除了性別外,年齡、服務年資、婚姻狀況、教育程度與職務別,對績效考核之程序公平、分配公平,以及工作滿足、組織承諾、工作投入等,均有顯著差異。
根據實證研究結論,並參考個案醫院組織結構,分別就績效考核的過程、結果,提出以下建建議:
考慮公開評核的評分標準、獎酬分配、明確晉升、調任制度、考慮依職務性質,發展績效評核指標標、建立雙向溝通的績效評核系統、應對評核者施以訓練、對部門空間重新規劃,減少相關人員工作環境的離散性以及資淺人員之聲音應予重視。

關鍵字:績效評核、程序公平、分配公平、工作滿足、組織承諾、工作投入
Impartial Cognizance of Employee to the Organizational Performance Appraisal & the Influence to Employees Working Attitude--The object is the medical Center in Taichung.
Abstract
Till today, the history of performance appraisal has developed over 70 years, and also many experts and scholars put forward appraisal theories and standards, but no any enterprise will say that their own appraisal institution is perfect, because both the subjective factor, e.g.: employee themselves, organization, and society, etc., and external situation can influence performance appraisal.

Due to the difference of educational background and the specific characteristics in the hospitals, this let the work of performance appraisal to be more complicated; the scholar shows that over 61% employee are discontented with the appraisal results. To the organization, the justice of appraisal is an index very important to judge the effect of performance appraisal. Moreover, we can find from more researches, employee’s cognizance to the justice of performance appraisal will influence personal results and the results of organization, includes satisfaction of work, participation of work, promise to organization, and the confidence in the directors, etc.

Therefore, the object in this research is the medical center in Taichung. We investigate the justice cognizance of performance appraisal institution, and the influence possible to working attitude. We use people’s personal property to be control variable, the justice of performance appraisal institution (includes justice of procedure and distribution) to be independent variable, working attitude (includes job satisfaction, organization commitment, and job involvement) to be according-variable, and explore the relationship and influence of personal property variable, justice of performance appraisal, and working attitude with the items mentioned above. We hope to give the performance appraisal standard to the case hospital to evaluation, start the development of manpower, and the reference of raising employee results.

This research total gives 2065 questionnaires, and effective questionnaire is 1452. Through Pearson Correlation Analysis, Hierarchical Regression Analysis, Canonical Correlation Analysis, Independent-Samples T test and Reliability Analysis, we have the finding important as follows:
The correlation and the influence between the procedural justice, distributive justice and the working attitude are showed the positive obviously; further more, to explore the relationship degree between the justice of performance appraisal and working attitude with typical correlations analysis. The principle variable (construction of procedure, objective principle, expression of opinion, actual results, self-estimation, and policy opinion) influences mainly the internal and external satisfaction, effort promise, value promise, job promise, etc. 5 forecast variable; besides, objective principle influences the forecast variable of value promise and job promise.
Among procedure justice of performance appraisal, distributive justice, and working attitude, it shows positive correlation and influence noticeable. Moreover, to explanation comparison between independent variable and dependent variable: explanation of procedure justice to organization commitment (value promise and job promise) is powerful than distributive justice, to the others; the explanation of distributive justice to job satisfaction and job involvement is powerful. Therefore, we can find distributive justice has its importance in the explanation to job satisfaction and job involvement. Procedure justice can forecast organization commitment.
To the personal properties of employee, except sex, age, service years, marriage, education degree, and position, the difference is obvious to procedure justice, distributive justice, job satisfaction, organization commitment, job involvement, etc. of performance appraisal.

In accordance with research conclusion of example with the reference of the case hospital’s organization construction, we would like to give the suggestion in the process of performance appraisal, results, working attitude, and administrator as follows:

Consider mark standard of public appraisal, distribution of reward, and conclude clearly the system of promotion of employee. Develop performance appraisal index according to character of position, build the two – way communication performance appraisal system, reduce dispersion of organization space to enhance the technician’s information interaction, the judge should be trained, and establish different performance appraisal index according to the character of position.

Key words: Performance appraisal, Procedural justice, Distributive justice, Job satisfaction, Organization commitment, and Job involvement.
目 錄
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機與背景……………………………………………………………………1
第二節 研究目的…………………………………………………………………………..3
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 績效評核…………………………………………………………………………..4
第二節 績效評核公平性………………………………………………………………….11
第三節 工作態度………………………………………………………………………….19
第四節 績效評核公平與工作態度之相關文獻………………………………………….27
第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究架構與研究假設…………………………………………………………….29
第二節 資料蒐集與資料分析方法……………………………………………………….31
第三節 研究工具設計與研究變項之定義與衡量……………………………………….33
第四章
第一節 基本資料分析…………………………………………………………………….40
第二節 各研究變項之描述性統計分析………………………………………………….43
第三節 績效評核公平性與工作態度之關係…………………………………………….45
第四節 個人屬性與各研究變項之間的關係…………………………………………….46
第五節 個人屬性與績效評核公平性對工作態度之影響……………………………….55
第六節 績效評核公平性與工作態度之典型相關……………………………………….63
第五章 結論與建議
第一節 個案醫院員工對研究變項之認知……………………………………………….65
第二節 管理涵義與建議………………………………………………………………….73
第三節 研究限制與後續研究建議……………………………………………………….78
參考文獻 ………………………………………………………………………………..… 79
附錄
表目錄
表2-1-1 績效評核之定義………………………………………………………………………4
表2-1-2 績效評核的主要用途…………………………………………………………………6
表2-2-1 公平判斷模式…………………………………………………………………………14
表2-2-2 群體價值模式定義簡表………………………………………………………………16
表2-2-3 Greenberg 研究結果影響績效評核公平性之因素…………………………………17
表2-3-1 組織承諾之定義………………………………………………………………………22
表3-3-1 績效評核程序公平之信度分析………………………………………………………35
表3-3-2 績效評核分配公平之信度分析………………………………………………………35
表3-3-3 工作滿足量表信度分析………………………………………………………………36
表3-3-4 組織承諾量表信度分析………………………………………………………………38
表3-3-5 工作投入量表信度分析………………………………………………………………38
表4-1-1 樣本特性資料統計表…………………………………………………………………41
表4-2-1 各研究變項描述性統計分析表………………………………………………………43
表4-3-1 績效評核公平性與工作態度之Pearson積差相關分析表…………………………45
表4-4-1 性別與各研究變項之t檢定表………………………………………………………47
表4-4-2 年齡與各研究變項的單因子變異數分析表…………………………………………48
表4-4-3 服務年資與各研究變項的單因子變異數分析表……………………………………49
表4-4-4 婚姻狀況與各研究變項的單因子變異數分析表……………………………………50
表4-4-5 教育程度與各研究變項的單因子變異數分析表……………………………………52
表4-4-6 職務別與各研究變項的單因子變異數分析表………………………………………54
表4-5-1 個人屬性變項轉換虛擬變項列表……………………………………………………55
表4-5-2 程序公平與分配公平對內在滿足之層級複迴歸方程式……………………………56
表4-5-3 程序公平與分配公平對外在滿足之層級複迴歸方程式 ………………………….57
表4-5-4 程序公平與分配公平對努力承諾之層級複迴歸方程式……………………………58
表4-5-5 程序公平與分配公平對價值承諾之層級複迴歸方程式……………………………60
表4-5-6 程序公平與分配公平對留職承諾之層級複迴歸方程式……………………………61
表4-5-7 程序公平與分配公平對工作投入之層級複迴歸方程式……………………………62
表4-6-1 績效評核公平性與工作態度各構面之典型相關分析………………………………63
表5-1-1 員工個人屬性與績效評核構面之差異性假設驗證彙整表…………………………70
表5-1-2 員工個人屬性與工作滿足構面之差異性假設驗證彙整表…………………………71
表5-1-3 員工個人屬性與組織承諾構面之差異性假設驗證彙整表…………………………71
表5-1-4 員工個人屬性與工作投入構面之差異性假設驗證彙整表…………………………72
表5-2-1 個人屬性在研究變項差異驗證結果彙總表…………………………………………73

圖目錄
圖2-1-1 績效評核過程模式………………………………………………………………………6
圖2-2-1 組織公平對員工滿足度之影響…………………………………………………………17
圖3-1-1 本研究之研究架構………………………………………………………………………30
圖4-6-1 績效評核與工作態度之第一組典型相關組型…………………………………………64
圖4-6-2 績效評核與工作態度度之第二組典型相關組型………………………………………64
參考文獻
一、中文部分
王秉鈞(1995),管理學,台北:華泰書局,頁654-656。
王時華(2000),「醫療機構從業人員工作壓力、工作滿足感與職業倦怠之研究」,東海大學公共事務碩士學程在職進修專班論文。
何金銘(2001),統計法輯要,台南:台灣復文興業股份。
吳明隆(2000),SPSS統計應用實務,台北:松崗,頁7-15。
吳家聲、陳奇信(1993),員工對績效評估態度與工作績效之關係,國科會專題研究計畫。
卓正欽(2000),「組織中分配正義與程序正義對員工組織承諾、工作滿意度及離職傾向之影響-以會計師事務所為探討對象」,國立臺灣大學商學研究所碩士論文。
林啟東(1992),「組織內資訊作業績效評估方法之探討」,國立台灣大學傷學研究所碩士論文。
林淑姬(1992),「薪酬公平、程序公正與組織承諾、組織公民行為關係之研究」,國立政治大學企業管理研究所博士論文。
徐正光(1977),工廠工人工作滿足及其相關因素之探討。中央研究院民族研究集刊,第四十三期。
徐漢祥(1998),「分配公平性、程序公平性對工作滿意度與組織承諾之影響」,國立中山大學企業管理研究所碩士論文。
袁國森(1997),「績效評估中程序公平及分配公平之認知對員工績效評估態度之影響-以中華電信某分公司為例」,國立中央大學人力資源管理研究所碩士論文。
張芳杰,(1996),牛津高級英英、英漢雙解辭典,台北:東華書局,頁625。
張紹勳、張紹評、林秀娟(2000),SPSS For Windows 多變量統計分析,台北:松崗。
張智寧,(1999),「不同策略群組特性下員工績效評估與組織績效之關聯性研究」,靜宜大學企業管理學系碩士論文
張耀宗、歐遠東譯,(1997),Hodgetts, R. M.著,人事人力資源管理,台北:天一圖書。
許士軍(1977),工作滿足、個人特徵與組織氣候-文獻探討與實證研究,國立政治大學學報,第35期。
陳正沛(1983),「研究人員之工作投入」,國立政治大學企業管理研究所碩士論文。
陳正強(1999),「組織公正、信任對工作投入與組織公民行為影響關係之研究」,國防管理學院資源管理研究所碩士論文。
陳奇信(1993),「員工對績效評估的態度與工作績效關係之研究」,中國文化大學勞工研究所碩士論文。
陳明正(1996),「組織公平與組織公民行為關係之研究-以金融業為例」,淡江大學管理科學研究所碩士論文。
陳富祥(1984),「個人屬性、工作滿足與工作投入關係之探討─以金融業為例」,國立政治大學企業管理研究所碩士論文。
陸鵬程(1980),「大臺北地區加油站員工工作滿足與組織承諾之探討」,國立政治大學企業管理研究所未出版碩士論文。
傅肅良(1989),人事管理,台北:三民書局,頁335。
黃光國,(1988)人情與面子:中國人的權力遊戲,台北:巨流圖書公司
黃俊英(2000),多變量分析,台北:華泰書局,頁218。
黃俊英、林震岩(1994),企業研究方法,台北:華泰書局。
黃英忠(1997),人力資源管理,台北:三民書局,頁247-250。
趙其文(1996),人事行政學-兼論現行考銓制度,台北:華泰書局。
劉上惠(1988),「工作滿足與離職意願」,國立中山大學學術研究所碩士論文。
劉家宗(1999),「員工對績效考核的認知與工作態度之相關研究-台電公司某發電廠為實證研究對象」,逢甲大學企業管理研究所碩士論文。
劉家駒(1996),「由組織及均衡觀點探討職位結構、組織承諾與承諾管理關係之研究」,國立政治大學企業管理研究所博士論文。
蔡坤宏(1999),「旅館業、旅行業、航空業員工社會化與工作壓力之關係比較研究」,中國文化大學觀光事業研究所碩士論文。
蔡崑源(2001),「華進集團員工滿意度、工作投入、組織承諾與離職意願之研究」,國立中山大學人力資源管理研究所碩士論文。
鄭瀛川、王榮春、曾榮和(1997),績效管理,台北:世台管理顧問公司
蕭煥鏘(1999),「領導型態、工作特性與我國地方機關人事人員工作滿足、組織承諾關係之研究」,國立中山大學人力資源管理研究所未出版碩士論文。
賴志超(1993),「程序正義、分配正義與組織成員工作意向之關係」,國立臺灣大學心理學研究所碩士論文。
羅新興(2000),「績效評核的程序正義之研究-探討受評者正義知覺之前因及影響」,國立臺灣大學商學研究所博士論文。
鐘金玉(2001),「公務人員績效考核公平與工作態度之研究-以高雄市政府所屬警察、醫療、稅務人員為對象」,國立中山大學人力資源管理研究所碩士論文。


二、英文部分
Adams, J. S. (1963), “Toward an Understanding of Inequity.” Advance in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol.67, pp.422-436.
Adams, J. S. (1965),“Inequity in social exchange.” Advance in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol.2, New York: Academic Press, pp. 267-299.
Alderfer, C. P. (1972), Ecistance, Relatedness and Growth: Human need in organizational setting. New York: The free press.
Alexander S. & Ruderman, M.(1987), “The Role of Procedural and Distributive Justice in Organizational Behavior.” Social Justice Research, Vol.1, No.2, pp.177-198.
Allen, N. & Meyer, J. (1993), Organizational commitment: Evidence of career stage effects?, Journal of Business Research , Vol.26,pp.49-61.
Anderson, G. C.(1993) , Managing Performance Appraisal System. Oxford: Blackwell, pp.6-8.
Antecendents and Consquences of Job Involvement: “A Case of The Taipei Municipal Government.” unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.
Applewhite, P. B.(1965), Organization Behavior. New Jersy: Prentice-Hall
Aquino, Karl (1995), “Relationship Among Pay Inequity, Perception of Procedural Justice, and Organizational Citizenship.” Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, Vol.8, o.1, pp.21-23.
Barnard, C. I.(1938), The functions of the executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Barr, S. H., Brief, A. P., & Fulk, J. L. (1981), “Correlates of perceives fairness and accuracy of performance” Academy of Management Proceedings, pp.156-160
Bies, R. J. & Moag, J. S. (1986), “Interactional Justice: Communication criteria of fairness.” Research on Negotiation in Organizations, Vol.1, pp.43-55.
Blau, G.J., & Boal, K.B.(1987),“Conceptualizing how job involvement and organizational commitment affect turnover and absenteeism.” Academy of Management Review, Vol.12,No.2,pp. 288-300
Brayfield, A.H.&H.F Rothe. (1951), “An index of job satisfaction.” Journal of Applied Psychology Vol.35, pp.304-311
Buchanan, B. (1974), "Building organizational commitment: The socialization of managers in work organization.” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.19, No.4, pp.533-546.
Campbell, J. P. et al. (1970), Managerial Behavior, Performance, and Effectiveness, New York: McGraw-Hill., p.378.
Cascio,W. F.(1982), Applied Psychology in personnel Management. 2th ed., Reston Publishing Co.
Clawson, J. G. (1999), Level three leadership: Getting below the surface. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Cohen, R. L.& Greenberg, J.(1982), “The Justice Concept in Social Psychology.” Equity and Justice in Social Behavior, New York: Academic Press, pp.2-35.
Collins, J. C., & Porras, J I. (1997), “Built to last: Successful habits of visionary companies.” New York: Harper Collins.
Cowherd, D. M. & Levine, D. I. (1992), ” Product quality and pay equity between lowerlevel employees and top management: An investigation of distributive justice theory.” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.37, No.2, pp. 302-320.
Cropanzano, R., & Greenberg, J.(1997), “Progress in organizational justice: Tunneling through the maze. ” In C. L. Cooper & I.T. Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology, New York: Wiley,Vol.12, Ch.8, pp.317-372. Cavior, N. J. (1988),
Crosby, F. (1984). “Relative deprivation in organizational settings.” In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, Vol. 6, pp. 51-93
Cummings, L. L. & Schwab, D. P. (1978). “Designing Appraisal Systems for Information Yield.” California Management Review ,Vol.20,No.4, pp. 18-25.
Davis, K.(1989), Human Behavior at Work, New York: Mcgraw-Hill Book Co..
DeCotiis, T. A. & Petit, A. (1978), “The Performance Appraisal Process: A Model and Some Testable Propositions.” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 3, No.3, pp. 635-645.
DeNisi, A. C. & Williams, K. J. (1988), “Cognitive Approaches to Performance Appraisal.” In K. M. Rowland and G. R. Ferris (eds.), Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, Vol.6, pp.109-155.
DeNisi, A. C. , Cafferty, T. P. & Meglino, B.M.(1984), “A Cognitive View of the performance Appraisal Process: A Modeland Research Propositions.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, Vol.33, pp.360-396.
Dessler Gray(1979), Human Behavior Improving Performance at Work Virginia: Prentice-Hall.
Feldman, J. M. (1981), “Beyond Attribution Theory: Cognitive Process in Performance Appraisal.” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.66, No.2, pp.127-148.
Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R. (1998), Organizational justice and human resource management. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Folger, R. & Greenberg, J. (1985), “Procedural justice: An interpretative analysis of personnel systems.” Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management, Vol.3, pp.141-183.
Folger, R. & Konovsky, M. A. (1989), “Effects of Procedural Justice and Distributive on Reactions to Pay Raise Decisions.” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.32, No.1, pp. 115-130.
Folger, R. (1986), “Rethinking Equity Theory: A Referent Congitions Model.” ed. By H. W. Bierhoff, R.L. Cohen, & J. Greenberg, Justice in Social Relations, New York: Plenum, pp.145-162.
Folger, R. (1987), “Distributive and Procedural Justice in The Workplace.” Social Justice Research, pp.143-160.
Furby, L. (1986). Psychology and Justice. In R. L. Cohen, (Ed.)., Justice: Views from the social sciences, New York: Plenum, pp.153-203
Greenberg, J. & Tyler, Tom R. (1987), “Why Procedural justice in Organizations ?” Social justice Research, Vol.1, No.2, pp.127-142.
Greenberg, J. (1986), “Determinants of perceived fairness of performance evaluations.” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 340-342.
Greenberg, J. (1987), ” A taxonomy of organizational justice theories.” Academy of Management Review, Vol.12, No.1, pp. 9-22.
Greenberg, J. (1990a),“Employee theft as a reaction to underpayment inequity: The hidden cost of pay cuts.”Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.75, pp. 561-568.
Greenberg, J. (1990b), “Organizational justice: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow.” Journal of Management, Vol.16, pp.399-432.
Greenberg, J.(1988),” Equity and workplace status: A field experiment.” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.73, pp.606-613.
Greenwich, CT: JAI.Farrell, D. & Resbult, C. E. (1981), “Exchange variables as predictors of job satisfaction, job commitment, and turnover: The impact of rewards, cost, alternatives, and investments.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, Vol.28, No.1, pp.78-98.
Gruncberg, M. M. (1979), Understanding Job Satisfaction, New York: John Wiely & Sons.Hodgetts, R. M. & Altman, S. (1979), Organizational Behavior. W.B. Saunders Co.
Hall, D. T. & R. Mansfield (1975), “Relationships of Age and Seniority with Career Variables of Engineers and Scientists” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.60, pp. 201-210.
Holland, J. L. (1969). Making Vocational Choices: A theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments (2 ed). Eaglewood Cliffs, NJ. Prentice Hall International.
Homans, G. C. (1961), Social behavior: Its elementary forms. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World .
Hoppock, R.(1935), Job Satisfaction, New York: Happer & Row.
James, L. R. and A. P. Jones (1974), “Organizational Climate: A Review of Theory and Research,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol.81,pp.1096-1285
Kallerberg, L. E. (1977). “Work values and job rewards: A theory of job satisfaction.” American sociological review,Vol.42,pp.124-143.
Kanungo, R. N. (1982), “Measurement of Job Work Involvement.” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.67, pp.341-349.
Katz D.& Kahn R. L.(1978), The Social Psychology of Organizations, New York:Wiley.
Kidron, A. (1978), “Work values and organizational commitment.” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.21, No.2, pp.239-247.
Konovsky, M. A. (2000), “Understanding Procedural Justice and Its Impact on Business Organizations.” Journal of Management, Vol.26, No. 3, pp. 489-511.
Korsgarrd, M. A., Schweiger, D. M., & Sapienza, H.J. (1995), “Building commitment, attachment, and trust in strategic decision-making teams: The role of procedural justice.” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.38, No.1, pp.60-84.
Landy, F. J. & Farr, J.L.(1980) “ Performance Rating” Psychological Bulletin, Vol.87,p.94.
Landy, F. J., Barnes, J. L., & Murphy, K. R. (1978), “Correlates of perceived fairness and accuracy of performance evaluation.” Journal of Applied Psychology,Vol.63, No.6, pp.751-754.
Latham, G. P. & Wexley, N. (1981), “Increasing Productivity Through Performance Appraisal Grending.” MA: Addison-Wesley.
Lawer Ⅲ, E. E. & Hall, D. T. (1970), “Relationship of Job Cartelistic of Job Involvement, Satisfaction, and Intrinsic Motivation.” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.54, pp. 305-312.
Lee , C. (1985). “Increasing performance appraisal effectiveness : Matching task types , appraisal process , and rather training . ” Academy of Management Review, Vol.10, No.2, PP.322-331.
Lerner, M. J.(1982), The justice motive in human relations and the economic model of man: A radical analysis of facts and fictions. In V. J. Derlega & J. Grezlak (Eds.), Cooperation and helping behavior: Theories and research, New York: Academic Press, pp. 121-145.
Leventhal, G. S.(1976), Fairness in social relationships. In J. W. Thibult, J. T. Spence, & R. C. Carson(Eds), Contemporary topic in social psychology. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.
Leventhal, G. S.(1980), “What should be done with equity theory? ” In K. J. Gergen, M.S. Greenberg & R.H.Willis (Eds.), Social exchange: Advances in theory and research. New York: Plenum press, pp.27-55.
Leventhal, G. S., Karuza, J., & Fry, W.R. (1980), “Beyond fairness: A theory of allocation preferences. ” In G. Mikula (Ed.), Justice and social interaction, New York: Springer-Verlag, pp.167-218.
Lind, E. A. & Tyler, T. R. (1988), The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice. New York: Plenum.
Lodahl, T. M. & Kejner, M. (1965), “The Definition and Measurement of Job Involvement.” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.49, pp.24-33.
Luthans, F. (1979), The Practice of Supervision & Management. pp.245-246.
Maslow, A. H. (1954), Motivation and Personality. New York: Happer & Brothers Pub., pp. 146-150. Martin, J. (1981). “Relative deprivation: A theory of distributive injustice for an era of shrinking resources.” In L. L. Cummings and B. M. Staw(Eds.), Research in organizational behavior. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Vol. 3, pp. 53-107
Mayo, E.(1945), The social problems of an industrial civilization. Boston: Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration.
McFarlin, D. B. & P. D. Sweeney,(1992), “Distributive and Procedural Justice as Predictors of Satisfaction with Personal and Organizational Outcomes.” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.35, No.3, pp. 626-637
Moorman, R.H. (1991), “Relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors: Do fairness perceptions influence employee citizenship? ” Journal of Applied Psychology,Vol.76, No.6, pp.845-855.
Mowday, R. T., Porter L. W. & Steers, R. M.(1982) “Employee-Organization Linkage.” New York: Academic Press, p.30.Mowday, R.T. (1987), ”Equity Theory Predictions of Behavior in Organizations.” Motivation and work Behavior, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill,pp.89-110.
Patchen, M. (1970), Participation, Achievement and Involvement on the Job, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey:Prentice Hall.
Pfeffer, J. & Langton, N. (1993), “The effects of wage dispersion on satisfaction, productivity, and working collaboratively: Evidence from college and university faculty.” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.38, No.3, pp. 382-407.
Proter, A.(1973), “The factorial structure of modernity: Empirical replications and a critique.” American Journal of Sociology, Vol.79, No.1, pp.15-44.
Proter, L. W., Steers, R. M. , Mowday, R. T. & Boulian, P. V. (1974), “Organization commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians.” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.59, No.5, pp.603-609.
Rawls, J. (1971), A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Reitz, H. J. & Jewell, L. N. (1979), “ Sex, Locus of Control and Job Involvement: A Six-Country Investigation.” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.22, No.1, pp.72-80.
Rhodes, S. R. (1983). “Age-related Differences in Work Attitudes and Behavior: A Review and Conceptual Analysis.” Psychological Bulletin, Vol.93,pp.328-367.
Robbins, S. P. (1998), Organizational Behavior. 8th Ed.New Jersey:Prentice Hall, pp.140-142.
Robbins,S.P.(1998),Organization Behavior. 8th Ed. New Jersey : Prentice Hall.
Robinowitz, S. L. & Hall, D.T(1977), “Organizational Research on Job Involvement.” Psychological Bulletin, Vol.41, pp.574-599.
Robinowitz, S. L.& Hall, D. T. (1977). “Organizational Research on Job Involvement.” Psychological Bulletin, 84(2), pp.265-288.
Rusbult, C. & Lowery D. (1985), “When Bureaucrats Get the Blues.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vo1.15, No.1, p.83.
Saleh, S. D. & Hosek, J. (1976). “Job Involvement: Concepts and Measurements.” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.19, No.2, pp.213-224.
Schermerhorn, Jr., J. R., Hunt, J. G., & Osborn, R. N.(1994), Managing organizational behavior, 5th Ed. John Wiley & Sons.
Scholl, R.W., Cooper, E.A. & McKenna F. J. (1987),. “Referent selection in determining equity perceptions: Differential effects on behavioral and Attitudinal outcomes.” Personnel Psychology, Vol.40, pp113-124.
Sheashore, S. E., & Taber, T. D. (1975), “Job Satisfaction and Their Correlation.” American Behavior Scientist, Vol.18,pp. 333-368.
Sheldon, M. E. (1971), “Investment and Involvement as Mechanisms Producing Commitment to the Organization.” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.16, No.2, p.143.
Sheppard, B. H., Lewicki R. J., & Minton (1992), Organizational justice: The search for fairness in the workplace. New York: Macmillan.
Shore, L. M. & Thornton III, G. C.(1986). Effects of gender on self and supervisory ratings. Academy of Management Journal ,Vol.29:pp.115-129.
Smith, P. C., Kendall, L. M., & Hulin, C. L.(1969), The Measurement of Satisfaction in Work & Retirement, Chicago: Rand McNally, pp.201~208.
Steers, R. M. (1977), “Antecedents and outcomes of organizational commitment.” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.22, pp.46-56.
Stevens, J. M., Beyer, J. M. & Trice, H. M.(1978)”Assessing personal, role, and organizational predictors of managerial commitment.” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.21, No.3, pp.380-396.
Tang, Thomas Li-Ping & Sarsfield-Baldwin, Linda J. (1996), ”Distributive and Procedural Justice as Related to Satisfaction and Commitment.” Sam Advanced Management Journal, Vol.61. No.3, pp.25-31.
Thibaut, J. & Walker, L. (1975), Procedure Justice: A psychological analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Trevino, L. K. (1992), “The social effects of punishment in organizations: A justice perceptive.” Academy of Management, Vol.17, No.4, pp. 647-676.
Tyler, T. R.(1989), “The psychology of procedural justice: A test of the group-value model.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.57, pp.830-838.
Vroom, V. H. (1962), “Ego-Involvement, Job Satisfaction and Job performance.” Personnel Psychology, Vol.15, pp.159-177.
Vroom, V. H. (1964), Work and Motivation. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc., p.99.
Walster, E., Walster, G. W., & Berscheid, E. (1978). Equity: Theory and research. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Weiss, D. J., Davis, R. V., England, G.W. & Lofquist, L. H. (1967), Manual for the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, Minneapolis: Minnesota Studies in Vocational Rehabilitation, 22, Bulletin 45, University of Minnesota, Industrial Relations Center.Whyte, W. H. (1956), The Organizational Man, New York: Simon and Schuster.Zohar, D. (1995), “The justice perspective of job stress.” Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol.16, No.4, pp. 487-495.
Werner, M.A.(1993),”The Interrelationships Between Organizational Climate Culture, and Managerial Priorities, Ph.D. Dissertation, DePaul University
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top