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研究生:石逸凡
研究生(外文):I-fan Shih
論文名稱:高科技產業員工關係實務之調查研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study on Practices of Employee Relations in Hi-tech Industry
指導教授:溫金豐溫金豐引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jin-feng Uen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:人力資源管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:員工關係勞資關係高科技產業
外文關鍵詞:employee relationslabor relationshi-tech industry
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在知識經濟時代,企業間的競爭已從產品、營運轉變到優秀人才的取得與創新能力之提升,對於企業而言,好的人才如何取得並非難事,最重要是讓優秀的人才持續的為企業的成長而努力,這牽涉到企業文化與組織的層面,除此之外,最直接的影響在於雇主與員工間雙方一來一往的互動,這種互動的本質就是所謂的員工關係。
本研究首先探討員工關係的含意與釐清員工關係的意涵,歸納學者所提出的員工關係相關實務,包含工會、團體協商、談判、員工投入與參與、溝通與協商等等,並參酌高科技產業的特性,融入學者所提出的員工關係實務,將員工關係的具體做法概分為六大部分,包含直接財務性報酬、間接財務性報酬、非財務性報酬、員工參與、組織溝通與勞資關係管理,以此六大部份針對高科技產業進行員工關係的實務調查得到以下的研究發現:
一、直接財務性報酬
在基本薪資的給薪制度方面,實行職務給比例大於職能給,,實行職務給的比例大於職能給,職能給最能促進員工關係成效。在激勵制度方面,實行年終分紅制度的公司最多,在促進員工關係的成效上,亦以實行年終分紅為最佳;在負責推動各項實務的單位部門中,主要以人力資源負責推動各項激勵制度。
二、間接財務性報酬
在經濟性福利方面,大部分的公司仍實行退休金、婚喪喜慶補助,在促進員工關係的成效上,以急難傷病救助的影響最大,負責推動的單位上,多為人力資源部門與員工福利委員會。在康樂性福利方面,舉辦國內外旅遊的比例最高,負責推動的部門以員工福利委員會為主。在設施性福利方面,以特約商店與消費折扣的實行的比例最高,員工關係成效的促進以員工福利社為最佳,在主要負責推動的單位方面,設施性福利多為行政總務部門、人力資源部門與員工福利委員會。在服務性福利方面,大多數企業仍重視基層員工申訴管道的作用與暢通,在促進員工關係的成效上,以家庭親善政策為最佳,在負責推動的單位中,仍以人力資源部門為主。
三、非財務性報酬
在非財務性報酬方面,高科技產業中領導風格的類型,以諮商參與式為主,在工作環境的部分,企業界普遍落實獎懲考核的規定與辦法、升遷機會的提供與公平性,彈性的工作時間對促進員工關係成效有正面影響,在負責推動的部門中,以人力資源部門為最主要的單位。
四、員工參與
在員工參與方面,員工參與制度以提案制度為最多企業實行,在促進員工關係的成效上亦以提案制度為最佳,員工參與權利方面,以財務管理方面參與程度低的比例最低,企業政策方面、行銷、生產、人力資源管理的員工參與程度均為普通。
五、組織溝通
在組織溝通管道方面,調查結果以相似層級間的平行溝通具有較高的運作效率,下行溝通通與上行溝通的運作效率的程度為普通的比例最多。在組織溝通方面,公佈欄、電話、面談、面對面會議與電子郵件為企業界極為普遍使用的溝通方式,尤其後三項對於促進員工關係成效上具有明顯的影響。
六、勞資關係管理
在勞資關係管理方面,高科技產業中僅有少部分的公司設立工會,發生勞資爭議採用調解的比例最高;在促進員工關係成效上,雖然團體協商與團體協約為最佳,但由於多數企業無設立工會,故比較調解、仲裁、訴訟,以調解較能促進員工關係成效。
In the current era of knowledge economy, the core of the competitions between corporations has evolved from production to management, and now focuses on the acquirement of adequate human resources and the amelioration of innovation. To corporations, the most vital task is often not how to obtain capable human resources, but rather how to ensure the existing ones continuously contribute to the progression of the firm. This involves the internal culture of the firm and its organizational layout; moreover, the most direct effect comes from the “push-and-pull” interaction between the employer and employee, which is the fundamental quality of employee relations.
This research first intends to explore and clarify the meaning of employee relation through a comprehensive study of the aggregated works on related applications of labor relations by previous scholars, including labor union, collective bargaining, negotiation, and labor involvement and participation. Bearing the attributes of high-tech industries in mind, the actual practice of employee relations can then be categorized under six major groups through an understanding of renowned models on labor relations: direct financial rewards and benefits, indirect financial rewards and benefits, non-financial rewards and benefits, employee participation and involvment, organizational communication and management on labor relations. Based on these six categories, an analysis of the actual practice on employee relations leads to the following conclusions:
A.Direct financial rewards and benefits
In respect to the base-salary system, position-oriented system is more widely adopted than the ability-oriented and the seniority-oriented ones. The ability-oriented system, though, imposes the maximal impacts on employee relations. In respect to the motivation system, the year-end profit-sharing system is the most common one, and it is also considered to be having the best effect on stimulating employee relations. In most firms, the department of human resources is the key unit in charge of the motivation system.
B.Indirect financial rewards and benefits
Regarding economical benefits, most companies follow the traditional model and engage in pension plan, the subsidy for marriage and funeral. Injury compensation is often acclaimed to be the most essential program in enhancing employee relations. These programs are often done through the Human Resource Department and the Employee Welfare Committee. Regarding benefits on leisure activities, the most common activity is domestic and international travel coordinated through the Employee Welfare Committee. Regarding facility benefits, high percentages of firms have contracts with stores or other corporations for discounts and pre-arranged special rates. However, labor co-ops are preferred as the facility that improves employee relations the most. In general, facility benefits are coordinated through the General Administrative Department, the Human Resource Department and the Employee Welfare Committee. Regarding services benefits, most firms respect foremost the smoothness of complain and appeal channel of lower-ranked employees, and they also achieve improvements on employee relation through family goodwill policy. Most of the services benefits are managed by the department of human resources.
C.Non-financial rewards and benefits
In respective to non-financial compensations, the leadership style of the high-tech industry often focus on the involvement and participation from the employees, and this is often done through inquiry and commentary. Regarding the working environment, the business sectors widely adopt regulation and policy on assessment, opportunities and fairness for advancement. Flexible working hours have also been known to have positive effect on employee relations. Benefits in this category are usually overseen by the Human Resource Department.
D.Employee participation and involvement
Most corporations implement labor participations through employee suggestion program, which also improves employee relations the most. Regarding the rights of employee participation, the participation level on financial management is the lowest, but the participation level on company’s policy, marketing, production and human resource management are normal.
E.Organizational communication
Regarding organizational communication, parallel communication is more efficient based on survey results. The efficiency of downward communication and upward communication is normal. Besides, bulletin board, telephone, interview, meeting, and e-mail are commonly adopted, especially the last three improves employee relations most.
F.Management in labor relations
Regarding management on labor relations, there were only few unions in hi-tech companies. Conciliation is most widely adopted on labor dispute. Collective bargaining and collective agreement improves employee relations greatly. Since most companies do not organize unions, conciliation is more preferred, compared with arbitration and lawsuit.
目 錄
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 2
第三節 研究流程 3
第二章 文獻探討 4
第一節 高科技產業的定義與特性 4
第二節 員工關係的意涵 8
第三節 員工關係實務 13
第三章 研究方法 21
第一節 本研究之觀念性架構 21
第二節 問卷設計與內容 21
第三節 研究對象與樣本特性分析 23
第四節 資料分析與整理方法 25
第四章 研究結果分析與討論 27
第一節 直接財務性報酬之分析 27
第二節 間接財務性報酬之分析 36
第三節 非財務性報酬之分析 56
第四節 員工參與之分析 66
第五節 組織溝通之分析 75
第六節 勞資關係之分析 84
第五章 結論與建議 87
第一節 結論 87
第二節 建議 89
第三節 研究限制 91
參考文獻 92
附錄:調查問卷 97
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