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研究生:張貝瑩
研究生(外文):Pei-Yin Chang
論文名稱:組織政治知覺的前因模型-公、民營企業的比較分析
論文名稱(外文):The Perception of Organizational Politics and the reason of perception of Organizational Politics For Public and Private Enterprises
指導教授:何金銘何金銘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chin-Ming Ho
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:人力資源管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:112
中文關鍵詞:工作特性公民營企業人格特質組織政治知覺組織結構
外文關鍵詞:Job CharacteristicPersonality TraitsPerceptions of Organizational Politics
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:5
  • 點閱點閱:146
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:32
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
摘要

近年來為避免金字塔型的層級架構減緩了資訊的傳達與命令的執行,許多企業組織結構逐步朝向扁平化發展,傾向以團隊取代原有以個人為主的工作方式,員工也因此獲得更多的權力來參與組織的決策。這些趨勢也導致組織員工或部門間彼此的互動與依賴性增加。

但是工作的重疊性增加也意味著績效的重疊性也增加,人類「自利」的心態復以個人工作的自主性,引發權力、利益的爭奪,爭功諉過的政治行為愈發出現於「員工-員工」甚至「主管-員工」之間。組織政治知覺(perceptions of organizational politics)即在探討員工個人在身處的工作環境之中,對於政治行為的感受。

多年來,許多組織政治的研究對組織政治的定義莫衷一是。對組織政治行為的界定亦眾說紛紜,在企業經營中,一方面雇主要求員工要有良好的工作態度,但另一方面,員工在組織中卻處處伴隨著政治行為的產生,究竟是何種環境情況下,會造成人們對所謂的「事實的知覺」採取行動,而非「事實的真相」,畢竟那又會造成何等影響,是個值得深思的問題。

本研究以Ferris et al(1989)組織政治知覺模型前因變項為主研究架構,國內公、民營企業為驗證對象,探討前因變項對組織政治知覺的影響力及公、民營企業員工對組織政治知覺的差異性。

本研究共發出問卷3651份,有效回收問卷2306份,回收率逹63.16%。藉由因素分析、差異性分析、Pearson相關分析、複迴歸分析等統計分析後,由結果顯示可歸納獲致以下幾項結論。

一、經探索性研究,歸併組織政治知覺構面為三個分構面:
1. 上司與同事行為
2. 政策與實務的差距
3. 保持沈默靜待好處

二、個人變項對組織政治知覺的差異性
1. 年齡、教育程度、工作年資、與主管共事年資,對組織政治知覺有顯著差異。
2. 工作職級對組織政治知覺及三個分構面均有顯著性的差異。
3. 公、民營企業員工對組織政治知覺有顯著差異;公營企業員工的知覺程度高於民營機構的員工。

三、影響性假設驗證結果
經相關性分析及複迴歸分析後,結果得到:
1. 個人因素中,公、民營企業員工的人格特質對組織政治知覺及各分構面均有顯著影響。
2. 工作環境因素中,公、民營企業的升遷機會對組織政治知覺及各分構面均有顯著的負向影響力。
3. 組織因素中,工作職級、組織專業化、民主化對民營企業員工的組織政治知覺有顯著的負向影響力。但對公營企業員工則未具影響力。
4. 前因變項對整體組織政治知覺的解釋變異量,公營企業可逹42.60%;民營企業可逹41.40%。

經由研究結果顯示,公、民營企業的個人、組織與環境因素對於組織政治知覺的影響性均有各別程度的差異,經實證分析瞭解,個人因素中具有不同之人格特質、不同的組織結構及工作特性之差異化,其各別程度越顯著時,則對於組織政治知覺存在性之影響力亦就越強,故若能越瞭解形成組織政治行為之各項存在因素,將有助於企業找到適才適所之人才,則員工亦可找到適合於自己的企業機構,發揮其專業能力並為企業創造佳績。人盡其材、物盡其用、均有所長、各有所終。人力資源管理最終即在實現此一目標。
Abstract

In recent years, many enterprises’ organization structure were toward gradually to the ‘flat’ from pyramid-like hierarchical system for avoiding slowdown in transmitting information and implementing any decision, and tended to have teamwork instead of individual workforce, from those employees gained more power to involve in the organization decision. And, such trend led to the increase of interaction and reliance on each member or divisions of organization.
Yet, the increment of job overlap meant overlap in job performance, the manner of ‘selfish’ human beings have plus independence of individual job triggered the fight of power and benefits, the political behaviors, ‘contending prize shifting blame’, were emerged from “employee-employee” even “employee-supervisor”. Perceptions of organizational politics are engaged in research in employee’s feeling about the political behaviors in his working environment.
For years, there’re various definitions about organizational politics proposed by researchers in this field, organizational politic behaviors as well. In running business, employees are required good job attitude by employer, but on the other hand, employees are accompanied the rising of political behaviors in organization. What environment would result in action taken by people ‘perception of fact’, not ‘truth of fact’, after all, what consequence would it be taken? That’s worthy of consideration.
The mainframe of this research is based on the variables of perceptions of organizational politics model proposed by Ferris et al (1989), the domestic public、private enterprises are the examined objects, studying the variables influence on perceptions of organizational politics, and the difference between public and private employees to perceptions of organizational politics.
Issued 3651 questionnaire, the sample consisted of 2306 employee; the collecting rate reached 63.16% The data being examined by statistic method as variance analysis, Pearson’s r, correlation analysis, multiple linear regression analysis etc., and the findings are as follow:
一. Through exploratory study, three dimensions were contributed to perceptions of organizational politics:
1. Employee and Supervisor behavior
2. The range between policy and practice
3. Keeping silence for advantage
二. The difference found by individual variables in perceptions of organizational politics:
1. Significant difference was found in Age、education、working tenure and the tenure with supervisor.
2. Significant difference was found in job ranks for both perceptions of organizational politics and three dimensions.
3. Significant difference was found in the employees of public、private organization;The public employees have higher perceptions than privates’.
三. The examining finding on influence hypothesis:by multiple linear regression analysis;
1. In individual factors, significant influence was found in the personality characteristics of employees of public、private organization for both perceptions of organizational politics and each dimension.
2. In working environment, negative influence was found in the promotion opportunity of public、private organization for both perceptions of organizational politics and each dimension.
3. In organization factors, negative influence was found in job rank、organization professionalization、democratization for private employees in the perceptions of organizational politics, but no effect on public employees.
4. The variables to the variance explanation of whole explanation of perceptions of organizational politics, the public organization could be reached to 42.60%; 41.40% to private organization.
This research indicated that there’re some degrees of difference on the influence of perceptions of organizational politics at individual、organization and environment factors of public、private organization, after empirical studies, knowing there’re vary personality characteristics in individual factors、vary organization structure and difference of job characteristics, more significance in respective degree, more influence in the existence of perceptions of organizational politics, therefore, understanding more respective existent contributory factors of perceptions of organizational politics, helping enterprises more in finding right person to right place, and employee could find suitable enterprise to develop his expertise for mutual great advantage, that’s the ultimate goal human resource management implemented eventally.
目 錄 I
圖表目錄 II
第一章 動機與目的 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的 3
第三節 研究流程 4
第二章 文獻探討 5
第一節 組織、組織結構、組織政治的定義 5
第二節 組織政治知覺的定義 10
第三節 組織政治知覺模型之研究 13
第四節 人格特質的意義 21
第五節 工作特性的意義 27
第六節 公、民營企業的比較 29
第三章 資料分析方法 32
第一節 研究架構 32
第二節 研究假設 33
第三節 研究對象及分析方法 35
第四節 研究變項操作性定義與衡量工具 38
第五節 量表信度分析 41
第六節 組織政治知覺量表之因素分析 42
第四章 實證分析 44
第一節 個人變項在組織政治知覺上之差異性分析 44
第二節 前因變項與組織政治知覺之相關分析 47
第三節 前因變項與組織政治知覺之關係─公、民營企業比較分析 50
第四節 前因變項與組織政治知覺的影響性分析 56
第五節 前因變項對組織政治知覺的影響分析 ─── 公、民企業的比較分析 61
第五章 結論與建議 64
第一節 研究結論 64
第二節 研究建議 69
第三節 研究限制 71
中文參考書目 72
英文參考書目 73
附錄一 抽樣組織描述 80
附錄二 本研究問卷 90
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