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研究生:陳榮德
研究生(外文):Jung-te Chen
論文名稱:組織內部社會網絡的形成與影響:社會資本觀點
論文名稱(外文):The emergences and consequences of intra-organizational social networks--social capital perspective
指導教授:趙必孝趙必孝引用關係
指導教授(外文):Bih-shiaw Jaw
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:人力資源管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:238
中文關鍵詞:社會資本公民行為知識分享脈絡績效人格特質組織內部社會網絡
外文關鍵詞:social capitalpersonalitycontextual performancecitizenship behaviorintra-organizational social networksknowledge sharing
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:303
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  • 下載下載:951
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:35
本研究結合了社會網絡、社會資本及組織行為三個研究領域,探討組織內部社會網絡的形成影響因素,以及所造成的影響,並分別以對偶、個人及網絡等三種分析層次提出研究架構及研究假設。社會資本議題在組織與管理領域中已相當受到重視,但由於其資料蒐集及分析方法的特殊性及困難度,而使相關的實証研究相對較少,國內學術研究中更是少見。針對國內十七家公司進行訪談及社會網絡調查過程中,由於需要受訪公司高度的配合,且問卷採記名方式,而使資料蒐集面臨許多困難,發出的645份社會網絡問卷,最後共回收了505份。本研究運用社會網絡量表及UCINET VI社會網絡軟體,經統計分析後,對偶、個人及網絡三種層次的分析各得到以下結論:

  對偶層次分析以代表對偶關係品質的「認知基礎信任」、「情感基礎信任」為核心變項,象徵對偶互動行為的「知識分享行為」及「同儕公民行為」為依變項,並以「相似-吸引典範」、「自我歸類」、「社會認同」等論點為理論基礎,驗証兩個體間於人口統計背景特性(性別、學歷、年齡、年資)的同質/相似性、以及「主觀價值觀契合」、「主觀友誼關係」,對關係品質及互動行為的影響。實証結果發現,當兩人的教育程度及在公司所待的年資愈相近,彼此的價值觀契合、友誼關係、認知及情感信任、知識分享及公民行為皆會愈高;兩人彼此的認知及情感信任程度愈高,亦較願意彼此分享知識及產生公民行為。較特殊的發現為異性間於職場上的關係品質比同性之間來得高,其原因可能是同性間於職場較易互相比較、競爭,且要求的標準較高,而與異性則無此問題。

  個人層次分析則以個人於組織中「工作諮詢網絡」與「友誼關係網絡」結構位置中心性為核心變項,以正式組織結構(工作流網絡、職階)、人格特質(負責任、自我監控、外向性、團體主義)及職務特性(任務相依性、工作負荷性)作為前因變項,個人脈絡績效的「知識分享行為」及「同儕公民行為」為依變項,「個人社會資本(被分享資訊及知識、取得工作相關情報、被傳授經驗及智慧、被選為團隊合作夥伴)為中介變項,建構並驗証個人社會網絡的因果模式。實証結果發現,當個人於正式組織結構中的職階愈高、執行工作時與愈多人互動接觸、本身偏向負責任、高自我監控及團體主義性格、所擔任職務的任務相依性愈高及工作負荷性愈小時,個人於「工作諮詢網絡」的位置愈偏向中心點,性格內向外向與否則無影響。而個人於「友誼關係網絡」的結構位置中心性,則僅受到工作流網絡、負責任的正向影響,以及工作負荷性的負向影響。象徵個人脈絡績效的知識分享行為受到負責任、自我監控、職階、工作流網絡、工作諮詢網絡、友誼關係網絡、被分享資訊知識、取得工作相關情報、被選為合作對象等變項的正向影響,而受到工作負荷性及被傳授經驗智慧的負向影響;除了職務特性、人格特質及職階對同儕公民行為無影響外,其餘變項的分析結果與知識分享的相同。個人社會資本於個人社會網絡及個人脈絡績效之間的中介效果,於本研究中獲得証實。

  網絡層次分析為以X公司組織內部的九個社會網絡的對稱後結構圖與正式組織結構圖進行比較,判讀結果發現,正式組織結構中象徵垂直關係的職階及水平的部門劃分,確實對社會網絡的結構性構形有相當程度的影響。另外以「友誼關係」及「情感信任」兩個關係矩陣為依變項,以兩人是否同部門、同性別、同年齡層、同學歷、同婚姻狀態及其餘九個社會網絡等共十四個關係矩陣為自變項,以MRQAP分析法進行區組迴歸分析。實証結果發現,兩人於同部門服務、同性及同樣單身或已婚,彼此間的友誼關係及情感信任會比不同者來得高,支持了同質/相似-吸引的理論。最後於結論中針對三個研究層次的分析結果進行說明及討論,並為後續研究及實務界提供具體的建議。
Social networks and social capital issues have been combined with organizational behavior scope for decades. Nevertheless, the difficulty of methodology and data collection causes the rareness of related empirical study. In this dissertation, multi-level research structure and hypothesis, including dyadic-level, individual-level, and network-level, are proposed to be examined respectively. 505 questionnaires were collected from 17 companies providing a great deal of support to be analyzed by social network analysis technique of UCINET VI for windows. The following are results and conclusions of each research level:

For dyadic level, “cognition-based trust” and “affect-based trust” are core variables representing dyadic relationship quality. Similarity/attraction paradigm, self-categorizing, and social identity were used as theory basis to prove the positive effects of antecedents embracing gender, education level, age, and tenure similarity, also the “value fit” and “cognitive friendship”, on dyadic relationship quality and interaction behaviors. The results demonstrate the higher similarity of education level and tenure between two individuals, the greater level of value fit, friendships, cognitive-based trust, affect-based trust, knowledge sharing, and citizenship behaviors. Cognition and affect trusts between two individuals cause the knowledge sharing and citizenship behaviors for each other. The positive effects of gender differences on relationship quality are discovered unexpectedly.

For individual level, the normalized in-degree of centralities of “advice networks” and “friendship networks” were measured by social network analysis techniques to be examined as core variables. I draw on the formal organization structure (work flow network centrality and rank), personalities (conscientiousness, high-low self-monitoring, extraversion/introversion, collectivism/individualism), and job characteristics (job inter-dependency and work loading) for the antecedent variables of “advice networks”, “friendship networks”, and personal contextual performance (knowledge sharing and citizenship behaviors). Also treat the “personal social capital” as the mediate variables among personal social networks and personal contextual performance. The results demonstrate the positive effects of rank, work flow network centrality, conscientiousness, self-monitoring, collectivism, and job inter-dependency on the centrality of advice network. The negative-effects of work loading are also verified. For the centrality of friendship network, the results proved the positive effects of the work flow network centrality, and conscientiousness, also the negative effects of work loading on it. Knowledge sharing behaviors representing the part of personal contextual performance are positively affected by conscientiousness, self-monitoring, rank, work flow network centrality, advice network centrality, friendship network centrality, and personal social capital. Work loading influences the knowledge sharing behaviors negatively. Citizenship behaviors that also represent the part of personal contextual performance are influenced by advice network centrality, friendship network centrality, and personal social capital. The mediating effects of social capital among personal social networks and personal contextual performance are also manifested.

For network level, the comparisons among formal organization structure and nine intra-organizational social networks demonstrate the influences of rank and division on social network structural configuration. I also draw on the similarity-attraction paradigm as the theory basis to examine the positive effects of the similarity of department, gender, age, education-level, marriage status, and nine intra-organizational social network matrices on the relational matrices of friendship and affect-trust. MRQAP (Multiple Regression Quadratic Assignment Procedure) technique is applied on this analysis. The results verified the positive effects of the similarity of department, gender, and marriage status on friendship and affect-trust between two individuals. In addition, the theoretical and managerial implications, limitations and future research questions based on the findings and suggestions for future research are provided.
第一章 緒  論………………………………………… 1
第一節 研究背景………………………………………… 1
第二節 研究動機………………………………………… 14
第三節 研究目的與問題………………………………… 25
第四節 研究分析層次及初步觀念性架構……………… 28

第二章 文獻探討………………………………………… 30
第一節 組織內部人際關係的形成及影響……………… 31
第二節 對偶關係品質因果模式的建構………………… 43
第三節 社會資本理論…………………………………… 60
第四節 社會網絡理論及社會網絡分析法……………… 77
第五節 社會網絡與社會資本的關係…………………… 85
第六節 組織內部社會網絡的形成困素及影響………… 93

第三章 研究方法………………………………………… 101
第一節 對偶層次的研究架構及假設…………………… 103
第二節 個人層次分析的研究架構及假設……………… 107
第三節 變數操作性定義及衡量………………………… 120
第四節 資料蒐集與樣本結構分析……………………… 130
第五節 資料分析工具及方法法………………………… 134
第六節 量表的信效度分析……………………………… 135
第七節 網絡層次分析方法……………………………… 138

第四章 研究結果分析…………………………………… 141
第一節 對偶層次分析…………………………………… 141
第二節 個人層次之描述性統計及相關分析…………… 150
第三節 個人層次之差異分析…………………………… 157
第四節 個人層次的影響性分析………………………… 167
第五節 網絡層次分析—X公司………………………… 177

第五章 結論與建議……………………………………… 192
第一節 研究結論………………………………………… 192
第二節 研究建議………………………………………… 204

參考文獻…………………………………………………… 206
附錄 本研究問卷………………………………………… 234
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