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研究生:張曉亨
研究生(外文):Joanne chang
論文名稱:部屬接受領導人之管理技巧研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Subordinate''s Acceptance of Supervisor''s Influence Tactics
指導教授:陳以亨陳以亨引用關係
指導教授(外文):I-Heng Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:人力資源管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:領導影響手段華人文化馬基維利關係友誼專業
外文關鍵詞:expertiseMachiavellianismfriendshipChinese cultural valuesinfluence strategyInfluence tacticsclosenessleadership
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:7
成功的領導要靠主管的影響力而不是威權。但若主管要有很好的影響力必需要先了解員工的想法。主管從員工的角度去思考、了解員工的心態就可以更進一步地修煉出更有效的影響技巧。要了解一個人的想法最重要的一個面向即從其文化背景下手。在Hofstede(1970)的研究裡發現華人社會是高權力距離的社會,也是集體主義的社會。這是由孔子思想造成的,孔子思想的核心觀念為重論理、以合為貴,所以在華人社會裡人與人之間的關係是很重要的。另外,華人的社會為菁英主義的社會,並且也根深柢固的相信教育可以提升人的社會地位,所以在華人社會裡若要當主管最好要具備專業能力。由於華人社會是高權力距離又是集體主義的社會,人們了解社會上存在種種的不平等,以及人越是在高位越喜歡操縱,並且想要更多的權力。而且因為是集體主義的社會所以華人對自己人與外人有者很大差異存在,對於自己人會想辦法給予更多的優惠。而這樣的特質與馬基維利主義的利己主義很相像,所以華人的個性裡存在一些馬基維利個性的因子。

這個研究主要是從員工的角度探討關係、專業能力與馬基維利個性,此三因素是否在其接受主管之影響手段中扮演重要的角色。除此之外,此研究主要的目的是從員工的角度去了解其對於影響手段的看法。研究結果發現(1)關係的強弱程度與主管選擇其手段有最強的影響-若關係很近,部屬可以接受的手段越多。(2)部屬認知其主管專業能力高,使用較軟性的手段會是較好的選擇,而若主管的學歷較部屬高,部屬就比較能夠接受主管較硬性的手段。(3)影響手段與馬基維利主義間並沒有顯著關係。
The key to successful leadership today is influence, not authority. However in order to be successful in influencing others, a manager must be able to know what their subordinates think. With the knowledge of subordinate’s perceptions, managers can perfect their use of influence tactics and then be able to easily perform influence on others. One of the most important aspects that can influence perspectives is culture. In Hofstede’s (1980) study it was found that Chinese societies are high in power distance and can be classified as collective societies. This is the result of Confucianism, which spreads values of social order and harmony. In this society, relationships are extremely important. Another characteristic of the Chinese is that they are elitists, and have a deep-rooted belief that education can raise a person to higher levels in society, thus we can see the importance of having expertise. Because of the high power distance which implies inequality and love of power, and collectivity which implies the difference in treatment between in-group and out-group members, it can be inferred that the Chinese tend to have Machiavellian personality. Thus we can see that the three main factors that influence the acceptableness of different influence tactics are expertise, relationships and Machiavellianism.

The purpose of this study is to examine influence tactics from the subordinate’s perspective, and to explore the relationship between expertise, personal relationships, Machiavellianism and influence strategies. The results show that (1) the closeness of the relationship is the most important factor to consider when choosing influence tactics, the closer the relationship, the more tactics one can use, both hard and soft tactics would be acceptable, (2) If the manager is known as having expertise, it would be best to use soft tactics, however subordinates will also accept hard tactics from managers who have a higher education level, (3) there was no significant relationship between influence tactics and Machiavellianism.
1. Introduction...................................... 1

2. Literature Review................................. 6
2.1 An Overview of Chinese Society.................... 6
2.2 Relationships..................................... 11
2.3 Expertise......................................... 18
2.4 Machiavellian Personality......................... 19
2.5 Influence tactics................................. 22
2.6 Relationship between perceived closeness and influence strategies............................................ 27
2.7 Relationship between perceived expertise and influence strategies............................................ 29
2.8 Relationship between perceived Machiavellian personality and influence strategies.................. 30

3. Methodology....................................... 33
3.1 Study Framework................................... 33
3.2 Hypothesis........................................ 34
3.3 Variable Definitions and Measures................. 35
3.4 Data analysis..................................... 43
3.5 Sample and Demographic Variable Analysis.......... 44

4. Results........................................... 47
4.1 Meta-categorization of Influence Tactics.......... 47
4.2 Acceptance of Influence Tactics................... 48
4.3 Analysis of Demographic Factors and Influence Strategy ..............................................49
4.4 Correlation Analysis.............................. 51

5. Conclusion........................................ 56
5.1 Discussion........................................ 56
5.2 Practical Implications............................ 63
5.3 Limitations....................................... 65
5.4 Suggestions for future study...................... 66

Reference:............................................ 67


Appendix I............................................ 76
Appendix II........................................... 77
Appendix III.......................................... 78
Appendix IV........................................... 79
Appendix V............................................ 80
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