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研究生:于仁壽
研究生(外文):Ren-shou Yu
論文名稱:中共對抗美蘇超強之研究(1949-1969)
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Beijing’s Struggle Against Washington and Moscow, 1949-1969
指導教授:林文程林文程引用關係張錫模張錫模引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-cheng LinHsimo Chang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:中山學術研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:273
中文關鍵詞:中共美國蘇聯
外文關鍵詞:CCPUSUSSR
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過去有關中共外交的研究較為輕忽軍事因素,這造成中共對外軍事行動只被當作外交政策的結果,而無視於外交政策與軍事因素之間所具備的互動關係。因此,本研究企圖將中共外交與軍事戰略相結合,並回答三個問題:一、中蘇共為何能夠發展成為同盟關係?二、中共為什麼選擇與蘇聯結盟後又反目,讓自己陷入兩強相逼的險境?三、在軍力明顯不如人的情況下,中共憑藉什麼力量先後與美、蘇進行軍事對抗?

本研究主張:一、中共決定結盟對象的關鍵,是因為當時蘇聯能提供比美國更為豐厚的利益,在政權還不穩固之際,決定中蘇共結盟的因素並不是因為雙方具備共同的意識型態;二、當政權開始穩固後,中共外交決策中意識型態的影響力便上升,意識型態的爭論確實是造成中蘇共分裂的主因;三、毛時代的中共知道利用陸權國家的戰略優勢,讓解放軍在地面作戰上不致落居下風,這是討論中共在對抗美蘇超強過程中一個長期被忽視的因素;但也正由於中共在海空軍實力上的不足,使得美軍第七艦隊能夠遏制共軍「解放台灣」,也造成海峽兩岸分治問題直到今日仍懸而未決。
第一章 序 論 1
第一節 研究背景與目的 1
第二節 研究範圍與議題 3
第三節 現有文獻分析 5
第四節 研究方法與限制 21
第五節 論文架構 23
第六節 史料來源略述 26

第二章 歷史背景:中蘇共結盟的曲折過程 29
第一節 聯盟理論 30
第二節 國共內戰前的中蘇共關係 34
第三節 國共內戰前中共與美國的關係 45
第四節 雅爾達協定的影響 52
第五節 國共內戰 60
第六節 新政權的外交抉擇 68
第七節 美蘇政策比較 84
第八節 本章小結 87

第三章 中共介入韓戰 89
第一節 中國戰略文化解析 90
第二節 戰略文化與嚇阻失敗 97
第三節 韓戰爆發過程 102
第四節 中共出兵參戰 113
第五節 本章小結 124

第四章 兩次台海危機 127
第一節 消失的危機 127
第二節 萬隆路線的提出 133
第三節 第一次危機台海 137
第四節 中蘇共聯盟關係的變化 145
第五節 第二次台海危機 154
第六節 本章小結 165

第五章 中共介入越戰 167
第一節 抗法援越 168
第二節 1954至1961年的發展 175
第三節 抗美援越 178
第四節 本章小結 196

第六章 中蘇邊境衝突 199
第一節 中蘇共交惡 200
第二節 邊境衝突過程 216
第三節 文化大革命的影響 227
第四節 社會主義陣營的內在矛盾 233
第五節 本章小結 238

第七章 結 論 241

參考資料 259
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尹良武、陳時偉著,張力譯,2000,「四十年來中國大陸的韓戰研究」,近代中國,第137期,頁133-143。
牛軍,1999,「1969年中蘇邊界衝突與中國外交戰略的調整」,當代中國史研究,1999年第1期,頁66-77。
石之瑜,2003,「文化研究作為政治學的次領域—能不能?該不該?」,政治科學論叢,第18期,頁1-22。
任健、陳謨,2001,「三線建設的回顧與反思」,軍事歷史,2001年第1期,頁27-31。
曲星,2000,「中越在印支戰爭問題上的戰略一致與策略差異」,國際論壇,第2卷第3期,頁42-50。
朴英姬,2000,「朝鮮民族革命黨在中國的抗日武裝鬥爭」,歷史檔案,2000年第1期,總第77期,頁123-132。
吳冷西,1994,「武仗與文仗—砲轟金門內幕」,傳記文學(大陸),1994年第1期,頁5-11。
李丹慧,1996,「1969年中蘇邊界衝突:緣起和結果」,當代中國史研究,1999年第3期,頁39-50。
———,2000,「中蘇在援越抗美問題上的衝突與矛盾(1965-1972)(上)」,當代中國史研究,第7卷第4期,頁44-57。
李登科,1999,「五十年的『中』、美、蘇(俄)關係」,中國大陸研究,第42卷第10期,頁45-63。
李察•洛克普藍(Richard Lock-Pullan),2002,「軍事改革與文化複雜性」,國防政策評論,第2卷第4期,頁6-36。
李鎨澂,2000,「外蒙古是否我國『固有疆域』?—外蒙古獨立問題評議」,香港社會科學學報,第18期,頁113-145。
沈志華,1994,「蘇聯出兵中國東北:目標和結果」,歷史研究,1994年第5期,頁88-103。
———,1999,「1948年蘇南衝突起因的歷史考察—來自俄國及東歐國家解密檔案的新證據」,歷史研究,1999年第4期,頁5-26。
———,2002,「赫魯雪夫、毛澤東與中蘇未實現的軍事合作—關於遠東防空協定、長波電台及聯合艦隊問題的再討論」,中共黨史研究,2002年第5期,頁32-43。
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周敬青,2001,「中蘇論戰與『文化大革命』的起因」,中共中央黨校學報,第5卷第1期,頁78-82。
季云飛、章慕榮,2002,「中國近代軍事文化的變遷」,軍事歷史研究,2002年第4期,頁143-153。
林正義,1998,「八二三台海戰役回顧與時代意義」,中華軍史學會會刊,第4期,頁23-33。
林斌,1998,「金門砲戰中毛澤東對美鬥爭的指揮藝術」,軍事歷史,1998年第1期,頁31-34。
徐相文,1999,「金日成、斯大林、毛澤東在發動韓戰問題上三角互動的探討」,亞洲研究,第31期,頁62-122。
栗國成,2003,「張嘉璈與戰後初期中蘇關於『國民政府接收東北』之談判(1945/10∼1946/4)」,政治科學論叢,第19期,頁139-180。
耿曙,2001,「『三線』建設始末:大陸西部大開發的前驅」,中國大陸研究,第44卷,第12期,頁1-19。
馬英明,1997,「當代中國建設史上的創舉—三線建設」,北京黨史研究,總第102期,頁22-26。
高殿芳,2001,「毛澤東授命郭化若研究古代兵法」,軍事歷史,2001年第1期,頁57。
張小明,1997,「對斯大林曾否勸阻過長江問題的再思考」,歷史教學問題,1997年第5期,頁35-37,42。
張淑雅,1993,「安理會停火案:美國應付第一次台海危機策略之一」,中央研究院近代史研究所集刊,第22期,下冊,頁61-106。
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中文官方文書與檔案資料
人民日報,各期。
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———,1993,毛澤東文集,第五、六、八卷。北京:人民出版社。
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———,1996,毛澤東傳(1893-1949)。北京:中央文獻出版社。
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———,1997,建國以來重要文獻選編,第十五冊。北京:中央文獻出版社。
———,1998,建國以來重要文獻選編,第二十冊。北京:中央文獻出版社。
中國人民解放軍軍事科學院毛澤東軍事思想研究所年譜組編,1994,毛澤東軍事年譜(1927-1958)。南寧:廣西人民出版社。
中華人民共和國外交部外交史研究室編,1993,周恩來外交活動大事記 1949-1975。北京:世界知識出版社。
毛澤東,1966,毛澤東選集,第一、二、三、四卷。北京:人民出版社。
———,1977,毛澤東選集,第五卷。北京:人民出版社。
———,1987,建國以來毛澤東文稿,第一、六、七卷。北京:中央文獻出版社。
———,1993,毛澤東軍事文集,第三卷、第六卷。北京:中央文獻出版社。
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周恩來,1996,周恩來一九四六年談判文選。北京:中央文獻出版社。
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西文期刊
Arreguín-Toft, Ivan 2001 “How the Weak Win Wars: A Theory of Asymmetric Conflict,” International Security, Vol.26, No.1, pp.93-128.
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