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研究生:徐敏慧
研究生(外文):Ming-huei Hsu
論文名稱:崇高美與渥滋華斯的美學:理論與詩歌
論文名稱(外文):The Sublime and Wordsworth’s Aesthetics: Theory and Poetry
指導教授:田偉文田偉文引用關係
指導教授(外文):Rudolphus Teeuwen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:崇高美渥滋華斯的美學
外文關鍵詞:Wordsworth’s Aestheticsthe Sublime
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崇高一辭,本為朗吉努斯所創,用以描述作者對讀者強烈的感染力,藉著作者高超的修辭技巧所創作的偉大詩歌,以感發讀者內心的情感。毫無疑問地,崇高是個文學觀念。然而,在柏克與康德相繼於1757年及1790年分別發表《崇高與柔美兩種觀念的根源之哲學研究》與《判斷力批判》後,崇高就喪失其原本含意,變成柔美的對照。此後,崇高便落入美學主題的範疇。不過,當我們在研讀朗吉努斯、柏克、康德理論的同時,是很可能陷入理論的矛盾裡。比方說,康德主張『我們必不能將崇高指向藝術作品』〈見《判斷力批判》第100頁〉。這句話也暗示著崇高是不能指向文學的。若是這樣,我們便不能稱米爾頓的史詩《失樂園》或者是艾蜜莉•伯朗特的小說《咆哮山莊》為崇高作品。相反地,若文學能被包含在崇高裡,那麼康德在審美判斷中所說的『無利害關係的愉悅』就無法自圓其說。正是這些理論上的衝突引起了我的研究興趣。因此,本論文的目的除了探討崇高的意義外,還嘗試著去解答理論衝突的兩個問題:『文學能否被包含在崇高裡』以及『崇高是否含有道德』。
本文共分四章。第一章為導論,簡述崇高的基本觀念與所研究的問題。第二章為崇高的理論基礎,探討幾個崇高的重要理論,並試著去解答兩個理論衝突的問題。第三章為浪漫式的崇高,依次探討渥滋華斯的美學與衛斯科爾的崇高的心理分析。而後,第四章則為本文之結論。從本文中,我們可以瞭解崇高觀念的演變,以及渥滋華斯整合這些文學、美學理論所做的努力。
Sublimity is a term originally coined by Longinus to deal with an author’s strong influence upon the reader by using his excellent rhetorical techniques to compose a great poem that stirs up the reader’s innermost emotions. Undoubtedly it is a literary concept. But, after Burke released his A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful in 1757 and Kant published his Critique of Judgement in 1790, the sublime lost its original meaning, turning out to be a counterpart of the beautiful. Since then, the sublime fell into a rubric of aesthetics. However, when we study Longinus’s, Burke’s, and Kant’s theories, we are likely to run into the contradictions between them. For instance, Kant insists that “we must not point to the sublime in works of art” (Critique 100). His words imply that the sublime cannot refer to literature either. If so, then we could not call Milton’s Paradise Lost or Emily Bronte’s Wuthering Heights sublime. On the contrary, if literature can be included in the sublime, then Kant’s “disinterested delight” in the judgment of taste will fail to make a good case for itself. It is the conflicts between theories that cause my research interest. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to discuss the meanings of the sublime, and try to solve the two problems: “whether literature can be included in the sublime” and “whether the sublime contains morality.”
This thesis contains four chapters. Chapter I is “Introduction,” which briefly states the basic concepts of the sublime and the questions of research. Chapter II is “The Theoretical Foundation of the Sublime,” which discusses several important theories of the sublime, and attempts to solve the conflicts between different theories. Chapter III is “The Romantic Sublime,” which discusses respectively Wordsworth’s aesthetics and Weiskel’s psychoanalysis of the sublime. And, Chapter IV is conclusion. In this thesis, we can see the evolution of the sublime and Wordsworth’s endeavors to integrate these theories.
Abstract i
Chapter I Introduction 1
Chapter II The Theoretical Foundation of the Sublime 11
2.1 The Classical Sublime 11
2.1.1 Whether Literature Can Be Included in the Sublime 11
2.1.2 Freedom 18
2.1.3 Revolution and Rebellion 21
2.2 Burke’s and Kant’s Theories of the Sublime 34
Chapter III The Romantic Sublime 46
3.1 Wordsworth’s Aesthetics 46
3.1.1 The Wordsworthian Sublime 46
3.1.2 Wordsworth’s Aesthetic Growth 61
3.1.3 Wordsworth’s Creative Theory 69
3.2 Thomas Weiskel’s Psychoanalysis of the Sublime 80
Chapter IV Conclusion 89
Works Cited 92
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Brennan, Matthew C. “Wordsworth’s I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud.” The Explicators 57 (1999): 140-3.
Burke, Edmund. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998.
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Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. “Biographia Literaria.” The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Eds. M. H. Abrams, et al. 5th ed. 2 vol. New York: Norton, 1986. 386-405.
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---. “The Satanic Hero.” The Norton Anthology of English Literature 411-2.
Durrant, Geoffery. William Wordsworth. London: Cambridge UP, 1969.
Eagleton, Terry. Literary Theory: An introduction. Oxford: Blackwell, 1983.
Elliott, John W. The Poetry of William Wordsworth. New York: Monarch P, 1965.
Emerson, Ralph Waldo. “Nature.” The Norton Anthology of American Literature. 4th ed. Eds. Byam, Nina, et al. New York: Norton, 1995. 439-66.
Giles, Herbert G. A History of Chinese Literature. Tokyo: Tuttle, 1973.
Homer. The Odyssey. Trans. Albert Cook. New York: Norton, 1967.
Hume, David. “Of the Standard of Taste.” Critical Theory Since Plato 314-23.
Johnson, Samuel. “The Plays of Williams Shakespeare: Preface.” Samuel Johnson. Ed. Donald Greene. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1984. 419-56.
---. “Prefaces, Biographical and Critical, to the Works of the English Poets: Cowley.” Samuel Johnson 677-97.
Joplin, David. “Wordsworth’s I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud.” The Explicators 57 (1999): 67-70.
Kant, Immanuel. Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime. Trans. John T. Goldthwait. Berkeley: U of California P, 1960.
---. The Critique of Judgement. Trans. James Creed Meredith. Oxford: Clearendon, 1952.
Kelley, Theresa M. Wordsworth’s Revisionary Aesthetics. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988.
Longinus. “On the Sublime.” Critical Theory Since Plato 76-102.
Lyotard, Jean-Francois. Lessons on the Analytic of the Sublime. Trans. The French Ministry of Culture. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1994.
Milton, John. “The Text of Paradise Lost.” Paradise Lost: An Authoritative Text, Backgrounds and Sources, Criticism. Ed. Scott Elledge. New York: Norton, 1975. 1-284.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. “On Social Contract or Principles of Political Right.” Trans. and ed. Julia Conaway Bondanella. Rousseau’s Political Writings: Discourse on Inequality, Discourse on Political Economy, on Social Contract. Ed. Alan Ritter. New York: Norton, 1988. 84-173.
Santayana, George. The Sense of Beauty: Being the Outline of Aesthetic Theory. New York: Dover, 1955.
Schickel, Richard. “Reel War: Steven Spielberg Peers at the Face of Battle as Hollywood Never Has Before.” Time 28 Sep. 1998: 46-49.
Selden, Raman and Peter Widdowson. A Reader’s Guide to Contemporary Literary Theory. 3rd ed. New York: Harvester, 1993.
Shelley, Percy Bysshe. “On the Devil, and the Devils.” Milton: Paradise Lost 55-56.
Teeuwen, Rudolphus. Comments on Sonya’s Chapter III. 6 Sep. 2003.
---. Comments on Sonya’s Thesis. 28 Oct. 2003.
Weiskel, Thomas. “The Logic of Terror.” The Romantic Sublime: Studies in the Structure and Psychology of Transcendence. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1986. 83-106.
Wordsworth, William. “Appendix III [The Sublime and the Beautiful].” The Prose Works of William Wordsworth. Eds. W. J. B. Owen and Jane Worthington Smyser. Vol. 2. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1974. 349-60.
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---. “Letter to John Wilson (1802).” Wordsworth’s Literary Criticism. Ed. W. J. B. Owen. London: Routledge, 1974. 103-9.
---. “Lines Composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey.” William Wordsworth: Selected Poems and Prefaces. Ed. Jack Stillinger. Boston: Houghton, 1965. 108-11.
---. “My Heart Leaps up.” William Wordsworth: Selected Poems and Prefaces 160.
---. “Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood.” William Wordsworth: Selected Poems and Prefaces 186-91.
---. “Ode to Duty.” William Wordsworth: Selected Poems and Prefaces 184-5.
---. “Preface to the Second Edition of Lyrical Ballads (1800).” William Wordsworth: Selected Poems and Prefaces 445-64.
---. “Resolution and Independence.” William Wordsworth: Selected Poems and Prefaces 165-9.
---. “The Prelude: 1799, 1805, 1850.” The Prelude: Authoritative Texts, Context and Reception, Recent Critical Essays. Eds. Jonathan Wordsworth, et al. New York: Norton, 1979. 1-284.
Young, Edward. “Conjectures on Original Composition.” Critical Theory Since Plato 338-47.
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