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研究生:陳素連
研究生(外文):Suelien Chen
論文名稱:行銷驚悚:四部英國志異小說中鬼魅性的探討:《古堡疑雲》《僧侶》《科學怪人》《漂流者梅爾梅斯的記事》
論文名稱(外文):Marketing Terror: Gothic Spectrality in The Mysteries of Udolpho, The Monk, Frankenstein, and Melmoth, the Wanderer
指導教授:田偉文田偉文引用關係
指導教授(外文):Rudolphus Teeuwen
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:194
中文關鍵詞:商品化鬼魅性志異精神分析
外文關鍵詞:commodificationspectralitypsychoanalysisGothic
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論文提要 :
傳統志異小說有一套標準配備:廢棄的古堡或修道院;上鎖的房間或是陰森的地窖;多嘴的女僕,陰晴不定的男主人;以及有關謀殺和離奇死亡的傳說,不足為外人道的秘密。這套配備讓志異小說容易量產,不斷激起讀者的好奇心,刺激他們的感官,於是促成這類小說成為市場寵兒。 此外,有評論家指出,英國志異小說之所以受歡迎是因為它喚起讀者的童年記憶。 然而這種以靈異以及感官刺激為訴求的小說,除了延續讀者又愛又怕的童年情緒,用來打發等候的無聊時光,並且經常被棄置在房間甚至於洗手間一角之外,它到底有何被稱為《文學》的價值?
我的論文以此為出發點,一個與童年、幻想、驚悚、消費品連接在一起的文類,它何以在兩百多年後仍然是書市的熱門。沒錯,如今已經沒有人用小說來稱呼現今的靈異幻想作品。 但以它為原型而衍生的各類創作依然大受歡迎,卻也依然不受文學學者青睞。 當我想為這個童年記憶尋找定位與價值時,我的策略是回到它的歷史背景,借用歷史學者的理論,重現英國志異小說在它崛起以至消失的過程中,它與它的人文、政治、社會各階層間的關聯。尤其當時美國、法國大革命相繼爆發。 緊接著是法國的恐怖統治,血腥政治鬥爭震撼英國各界。在英國國內則有工業革命衝擊其社會結構與經濟型態,加速了中產階級與勞工階級的興起。 革命的氛圍促使當時英國國內外政治與軍事的衝突日益升高。 種種因環境的巨變所產生的震撼與恐慌,讓志異小說成為時代的預言以及抒發這些心情的管道。 此外,就小敘述的方面來看,我想體現在一個日見商業化的社會裡,文學活動如何牽動階級間權力關係的轉變。 由此看來,這個文類與它與時俱進的時代有著互為表裡的緊密關係。
因此志異小說不應被視為單純的娛樂商品,甚至於是幼稚的想像。 它的根是深扎在發展它的文化土壤中,以一種幽微曲折的方式,婉轉地透露當時英國社會裡不同族群,尤其是中產階級的壓抑與想望。 在我論文的主要討論裡我用《鬼魅化》這樣的論述策略貫穿四部英國古堡小說,分別是安.瑞德克雷芙的《古堡疑雲》; 馬修.路意斯的《僧侶》; 瑪莉.雪萊的《科學怪人》; 以及查理斯.馬特寧的《漂流者梅爾梅斯的記事》。所謂《鬼魅化》是評論家泰莉.卡索提出的概念。她以佛洛伊德的理論《不可思議》為基礎說明安.瑞德克雷芙的獨特技巧:亦即各種靈異現象都有實際的原因可循,而大部分不可思議的狀況是過去種種熟悉記憶在受到壓抑後以令人不解的方式重返(revenant)。這種將他者《鬼魅化》的心態是非理性,特意混淆想像與現實,錯置不同時空,過程滿扭曲甚至於妖魔化。我在個別作品處理女性、性慾、野心、以及生命等主題,探討它們在《鬼魅化》的演變裡,如對照可見與不可見的真實,可言傳與不可言傳的存在狀態。 而這些議題所涵蓋的是英國在十八世紀末十九世紀初,新舊時代交替時,中下階層在面對劇變的時代惴惴不安的心理寫照。其實英國志異小說中的鬼魅性同時成就其商業及文學價值。
在這些作品裡有一個普遍的模式,那就是壓抑與顛覆的交互作用。而事實上,這也是通俗文學在被定位時,不同階級間的互動模式。在我爬梳這些議題的過程中,我想體現通俗作品,尤其是這個被視為已過時的文類,能有作為文化資產的價值。 文學不應因商業的介入,或者是是不同讀者群的好惡,而有高低之分。不管志異小說過時與否,它所指涉及涵蓋的人性層面、慾望與恐懼的糾葛沒有因時間的流轉而成為過去。
Abstract
Gothic fiction captivates adults probably because it always reminds them of childhood and the irrational and naïve responses to the invisible beings. In fact, fear initiated by terror intrinsic in ghost tales is not aimed to suppress desire, but turns to be an access for people to recognize their suppressed desires. Is Gothic fiction worth canonizing, deserving of the name of “literature” when Gothic fiction tends to be associated with immature fear and desire, and for most people, it is particularly suited to the temporal possession for passing leisure and boring time, and then it is piled up even around the corner of the lavatory?
My dissertation, however, starts with these pejorative terms: primitiveness, childhood, fantasy, terror and disposable commodity. Truly, this kind of popular literature appeals to great numbers of people, influencing a large portion of the population in the world, but is not credited accordingly. My intention is to discover the valuable relic that Gothic fiction has left among the contemptuous debris that the moralists and scholars have thrown at it. The strategy I adopt is to represent the milieu where Gothic fiction rises and falls in a historical and cultural perspective. Abroad, the American and French Revolutions break out in tandem, which instigate heated debates over ‘revolution,’ and ‘history’ in Britain. And the Reign of Terror in the aftermath of the French Revolution shocks the English monarch and aristocracy. The military conflicts between Britain and France increase. Domestically, the Industrial Revolution brings great impact to English society, precipitating the rise of the bourgeoisie and working class. Coincidentally, this literature of terror becomes the allegory of cultural and political convulsions that rack this nation. And the English people, especially the rising class, find the expression of their anxieties and expectations in Gothic fiction. In addition to reconstructing the network of political, social, aesthetic strains that are integrated into Gothic fiction, I attempt to depict how power shifts, changing the relationships of different factions and ranks of English society when commerce gradually dominates in the activity of literature.
As is noted, Gothic fiction is conceived to be more than an innocent enchantment, or a palliative composed of nostalgia for childhood, or a consumable pastime. To indicate how Gothic fiction is rooted in the depth of English culture, I exemplify four English classics as well as bestsellers, and scrutinize them with the concept of “spectralization” together with the theory of psychoanalysis. The four English Gothic novels I decided on are Ann Radcliffe’s The Mysteries of Udolpho, Matthew Lewis’s The Monk, Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, and Charles Maturin’s Melmoth, the Wanderer. With the spectralization of women, sexuality, ambition, and life in individual works, I endeavor to make the latent truth manifest. Thus, the visible and invisible states of existence are juxtaposed. These motifs indeed pertain to the anxious restlessness, painful sense of insecurity, and the tantalization of suppressed desires, which confronts the middle and lower classes as English society is going through rapid vicissitudes at the turn of the nineteenth century.
Finally, I come to the conclusion that a common pattern of forming and suppressing of desire repeats itself in each novel as well as in the interactions of different participants in the establishment of the Gothic discourse. The suppression imposed on popular literature, such as thrillers and Gothic novels, in fact, originates from the bias that there are highbrow and lowbrow types of literature. And the critics, most of whom consider themselves arbiters of literary tastes and makers of literary canons, show contempt to the bestsellers in the book market. With my research, I expect to convince people that Gothic fiction can be defined as a literary asset, not a disposable forged relic. Writers and readers that favor popular literature do not have to apologize or feel ashamed for their devotion to it.
Introduction 1

Chapter I
The Rising Class and a New Species of Literature
10

Chapter II
The Spectralization of Women: The Mysteries of Udolpho
55

Chapter III
The Spectralization of Sexuality: The Monk
84

Chapter IV
The Spectralization of Ambition: Frankenstein
113

Chapter V
The Spectralization of Life: Melmoth, the Wanderer
142

Conclusion

171

Works Cited
188
Works Cited

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