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研究生:詹曉婷
研究生(外文):Hsiao-ting Chan
論文名稱:刺鼠Niviventercoxingi(Muridae)體型與粒線體核酸D-loop區域之地理變異
論文名稱(外文):Geographic variation of Niviventer coxingi in body size and mitochondrial D-loop region
指導教授:張學文張學文引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsueh-Wen Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:生物科學系研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:48
中文關鍵詞:控制區域粒線體刺鼠體型地理親緣
外文關鍵詞:body sizeAllen''s rulephylogeographyspinous country ratBergmann''s ruleD-loopNiviventer coxingicontrol region
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整合過去研究的資料來看,刺鼠(Niviventer coxingi)的體型大小似乎和海拔有相關性,但是趨勢並不明顯。因此,為了得到更確切的證據,本研究中檢測了刺鼠的體長、附肢長度的地理變異。此外,Freckleton 等人於2003年的研究中指出,親緣關係是影響體型的重要因素,因此,本研究亦檢測了刺鼠的地理親緣關係,並評估其與體型和附肢長短的相關性。在體長結果分析方面,較高海拔的刺鼠(鳳岡,海拔1700 m)比較低海拔(扇平,海拔700公尺)的刺鼠體長為短。而不同的地理區域間的比較來看,扇平的刺鼠遠較其他地區為大,但是和烏石坑的個體沒有顯著差異;鳳岡的刺鼠也比霧頭山的個體為大;其他區域之間則沒有顯著差異。在附肢長度的部分僅有後足長在不同地區有顯著差異。另外後足長的差異只出現在擁有最大後足長的族群(扇平)和最小後足長的族群(霧頭山)之間,其他地區之間則沒有顯著不同。不論是體長或附肢長度,在分析中都顯示和平均海拔沒有顯著相關。在刺鼠的地理親緣部分,本研究以粒線體DNA中D-loop片段的資料為基礎,利用鄰接法(Neighbor-joining),最簡約法(maximum parsimony),以及最相似法(maximum likelihood)重建其親緣關係。同時,並以一同屬之高山白腹鼠(N. culturatus)作為外群。三種方法所建構的親緣關係樹都展現相似的型態。儘管部分來自鄰近地區的個體被分在同一群中,但是另外一些來自相同採集地的個體卻散佈在較遠的親緣關係中;同時,在靠近親緣樹根部的部分,由於許多枝系的bootstrap值的支持度低於50%,因此,在consensus tree中,靠近根部會有許多枝系。在這樣的親緣樹中,本研究並沒有觀察到和地點直接相關的親緣關係,也沒有觀察到體長或附肢長度和親緣的相關性;同時亦說明傳統上的「熱保留 / 散逸」機制無法解釋刺鼠體長在海拔上的變異。
Summarized the results of previous studies, the body size of Niviventer coxingi seemed to be correlated with altitude. For more exact evidence, geographic variations of body lengths and appendage sizes among areas were examined. Moreover, Freckleton et al. (2003) indicated that phylogenetic relationships may affect the results of one’s study while variation of body size is discussed. Therefore, the phylogeographic variation among different areas was also examined in this study. The body lengths of N. coxingi in higher altitude (Fong-gang, 1700 m) were shorter than in lower altitude (Shan-ping 700 m). Body lengths of N. coxingi in Shan-ping were longer than other areas but Wu-shih-kang; and N. coxingi in Fong-gang were longer than those in Wu-tou Mountain; but no significant differences were found among other areas. No significant differences were found in appendage sizes but hind-foot length. Significant differences of the hind-foot length were only found between Shan-ping which had the longest hind-foot lengths in average and those in Wu-tou Mountain which had the shortest. No correlations were found between altitudes and the body length or appendage sizes of N. coxingi. The phylogenetic relationships based on D-loop region of N. coxingi were reconstructed by neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods. An N. culturatus was used to be an outgroup. All three trees represented similar patterns. Although some individuals from neighborhood grouped together, some individuals from the same area represented distantly. Moreover, many branches represented in the root of the consensus trees because of the low bootstrap value. The results revealed the geographic variations did not correlated with their phylogenetic relationships and the heat conservation/ dissipation mechanism, which was the traditional explanation of Bergmann’s rule, was not appropriate for N. coxingi, either.
Abstract………………………………………………………………………....i
Introduction…………….……………………………………………………….1
Material and Methods……………….…………………………………………..5
Results………………………………………………………………………….13
Dicussion…………………………………………………………........…...….18
Reference…………………………………………………………........…...….23

Figures
1. The original sampling areas of the specimens examined…………........30
2. Entropy plots of the complete D-loop of Niviventer coxingi…………..31
3. The plot of transition and transversion versus genetic distance……......32
4. Phylogenetic relationship reconstructed by NJ method………………..33
5. Phylogenetic relationship reconstructed by MP method…………….....34
6. Phylogenetic relationship reconstructed by ML method…………….....35

Tables
1. Comparison of body weight of N. coxingi from different areas…..…....36
2. Sources of the specimens examined…………………………………....37
3. Results of independent t-test…………………………………………...38
4. Comparison of the morphological differences among different areas…39
5. Simple correlation analyses…………………………………………….40
6. Variable sites in D-loop of N. coxingi………………………………….41
7. Base composition and the percentages of GC content
of each domain of N. coxingi……………………….......……………….43
8. Site Variation of Each Domain…………………………………………44
9. Pairwise distance of D-loop of N. coxingi between haplotypes……….45
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