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研究生:陳昭君
研究生(外文):Chao-Chun Chen
論文名稱:台灣奇馬陸科(倍足剛)的分類研究
論文名稱(外文):Taxonomic Study of Paradoxosomatidae (Diplopoda) in Taiwan
指導教授:張學文張學文引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsueh-Wen Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:生物科學系研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:211
中文關鍵詞:馬陸奇馬陸科倍足綱台灣
外文關鍵詞:millipedeparadoxosomatidaediplopodaWang
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中文摘要
台灣馬陸原記錄58種,分屬於六目,其中22種屬於帶馬陸目 (Polydesmida) 的奇馬陸科 (Paradoxosomatidae)。在台灣採集了379隻奇馬陸標本為主,另向國內其他大學及研究機構商借部分標本共321隻,透過文獻、光學顯微鏡觀察外部型態及電子顯微鏡照相,並比較國外標本,發現當中有3種是同種異名:Helicorthomorpha kosingai (Wang, 1958a) 是 H. orthogonal (Silvestri, 1898) 的同種異名, Kronopolites ralphi Wang, 1957b是K. formosanus (Verhoeff, 1939b) 的同種異名, Oxidus circofera (Verhoeff, 1931) 是Orthomorphella pekuensis (Karsch, 1881) 的同種異名,另外訂正了2個新同種異名:Orthomorpha flavomarginata Gressitt, 1941 是 Orthomorphella pekuensis (Karsch, 1881) 的同種異名,Chamberlinius shengmui Wang, 1957b 是C. piceofasciatus (Gressitt, 1941) 的同種
異名,1種為錯誤鑑定:Cawjeekelia nordenskiöldi (Attems, 1909), 所以在過去發表的台灣奇馬陸當中實際有17種,10屬,另有一個新紀錄種:Chondromorpha xanthotricha (Attems, 1898),兩個新屬有三新種: Aposigipinius gen. n. 有兩新種aviformis sp. n. 及sierwaldae sp. n.,Changius gen. n. 有一新種jhongshan sp. n.,及其他屬10新種:Aponedyopus shenghaii sp. n.,A. sergeii sp. n.,Chamberlinius parhualienensis sp. n.,C. parpiceofasciatus sp. n.,Inversispina taiwanspiralis sp. n.
,Nedyopus latus sp. n.,N. longitudinalis sp. n.,N. microps sp. n.,N. passericaudatus sp. n.,及N. wui sp. n.,所以到目前為止台灣奇馬陸科應有31種,14屬,而本研究中採集到並鑑定出24種13屬奇馬陸。
Abstract
In previous taxonomic and fannal studies of millipedes for Taiwan, a total of 58 species were recognizied and in 6 orders, in which 22 were in Paradoxosomatidae. We collected about 379 specimens from Taiwan, and borrowed 321 specimens from other universities and research institutions in Taiwan. By referring to literatures, making use of the optics microscope to observe the external patterns of specimens, and taking photos of SEM, and comparing with the holotypes and paratypes loaned from foreign museums, and finding three species are synonyms: Helicorthomorpha kosingai (Wang, 1958a) is a synonym of H. orthogonal (Silvestri, 1898), Kronopolites ralphi Wang, 1957b is a synonym of K. formosanus (Verhoeff, 1939b), and Oxidus
circofera (Verhoeff, 1931) is a synonym of Orthomorphella pekuensis (Karsch, 1881), two species are new synonyms: Orthomorpha flavomarginata Gressitt, 1941 is a new synonym of Orthomorphella pekuensis (Karsch, 1881), Chamberlinius shengmui Wang, 1957b is a new synonym of C. piceofasciatus (Gressitt, 1941), one species, Cawjeekelia nordenskiöldi (Attems, 1909), should be misidentified by Wang which should not distribute in Taiwan. Therefore, there are seventeen species in ten genera of Paradoxosomatidae in Taiwan had been recognizied. In addition, a new recorded species: Chondromorpha xanthotricha (Attems, 1898), two new genera contain three new species: Aposigipinius gen. n., contains two new species, aviformis sp. n. and sierwaldae sp. n., Changius gen. n. contains one new species, jhongshan sp. n., besides, anther ten new species belonging to different genera: Aponedyopus shenghaii sp. n., A. sergeii sp. n., Chamberlinius parhualienensis sp. n., C. parpiceofasciatus sp. n., Inversispina taiwanspiralis sp. n., Nedyopus latus sp. n., N. longitudinalis sp. n., N. microps sp. n., N. passericaudatus sp. n., and N. wui sp. n. So, up to now, there are thirty-one species in fourteen genera of Paradoxosomatidae in Taiwan, and in which twenty-four species in thirteen genera are re-collected and verified in this study.
Index
Abstract…..…………………………………………………………………….…...1
Introduction………..………………………………………………………………2 Historical review of Family Paradoxosomatidae in Taiwan..........................................2
Millipedes……………………………………………………………………………...3
Family Paradoxosomatidae............................................................................................5
Morphology........................................................................................................5
Systematics…………………………………………………………………….6
Materials and Methods………………….…..…………………………………..8
Where to find the millipedes..........................................................................................8
Collection.......................................................................................................................9
Preservation…………………………………………………………………………..11
SEM photos…………………………………………………………………………..12
Morphological characters.............................................................................................13
Specimens loaned from different Collections..............................................................13
Taxonomic accounts…………………………………………………………….15
Key to families of order Polydesmida in Taiwan…………………………………….15
Key to genera of Paradoxosomatidae in Taiwan..........................................................16
Genus Aponedyopus Verhoeff, 1939似腹馬陸屬……………………………………19
Aponedyopus jeanae (Wang, 1957) 珍氏似腹馬陸 ……………...………….20
Aponedyopus reesi Wang, 1957瑞氏似腹馬陸……………………………….22
Aponedyopus shenghaii sp. n. 聲海似腹馬陸..................................................26
Aponedyopus sergeii sp. n. 石氏似腹馬陸……………………………………29
Key to species of Aponedyopus in Taiwan..........................................................30
Genus Aposigipinius gen. n. 似萎馬陸屬.................................................................. 32

Aposigipinius aviformis sp. n.鳥狀似萎馬陸…………………………….…....33
Aposigipinius sierwaldae sp. n.史氏似萎馬陸………………………….….......36
Genus Cawjeekelia Golovatch, 1980 傑可馬陸屬.....................................................38
Cawjeekelia kanoi (Takakuwa, 1943) 鹿野傑可馬陸........................................39
Cawjeekelia nordenskiöldi (Attems, 1909) 諾氏傑可馬陸............................... 43
Genus Chamberlinius Wang, 1956 章氏馬陸屬…………………………………….46
Chamberlinius hualienensis Wang, 1956花蓮章氏馬陸………………………47
Chamberlinius parhualienensis sp. n. 似花蓮章氏馬陸………………………51
Chamberlinius parpiceofasciatus sp. n. 似深紋章氏馬陸…………………….53
Chamberlinius piceofasciatus (Gressitt, 1941) 深紋章氏馬陸……......………54
Key to species of Chamberlinius in Taiwan.........................................................57
Genus Changius gen. n. 張氏馬陸屬……………………………………………….59
Changius jhongshan sp. n. 中山張氏馬陸…………………………………….60
Genus Chondromorpha Silvestri, 1897 瘤馬陸屬………………………………….63
Chondromorpha xanthotricha (Attems, 1898) 金毛瘤馬陸……….…………..64
Genus Helicorthomorpha Attems, 1914繞馬陸屬......................................................68
Helicorthomorpha holstii (Pocock, 1895) 霍氏繞馬陸......................................70
Genus Inversispina Zhang, 1997 旋馬陸屬................................................................74
Inversispina taiwanspiralis sp. n. 台灣螺旋旋馬陸…………………….…....75
Genus Kronopolites Attems, 1914 攏馬陸屬..............................................................78
Kronopolites formosanus (Verhoeff, 1939b) 台灣攏馬陸..................................79
Genus Nedyopus Attems, 1914 腹馬陸屬……………………………………….….83
Nedyopus latus sp. n. 寬腹馬陸………………………………………….........85
Nedyopus longitudinalis sp. n. 長腹馬陸………………………………….......88
Nedyopus microps sp. n. 小腹馬陸…………………………………………....93

Nedyopus passericaudatus sp. n. 燕尾腹馬陸………………………..….........96
Nedyopus patrioticus (Attems, 1898) 愛國者腹馬陸……………………..... 101
Nedyopus wui sp. n. 吳氏腹馬陸……………………………………….……104
Key to species of Nedyopus in Taiwan...............................................................108
Genus Orthomorpha Bollman, 1893 直形馬陸屬……………………………...….109
Orthomorpha coarctata (Saussure, 1860) 粗直形馬陸....................................110
Genus Orthomorphella Hoffman, 1963 小直形馬陸屬………………………..….116
Orthomorphella pekuensis (Karsch, 1881) 北京小直形馬陸…………….….117
Genus Oxidus Cook, 1911 酸帶馬陸屬……………………………………………122
Oxidus gracilis (Koch, 1847) 雅酸帶馬陸.......................................................123

Discussion...............................................................................................................130
Literature cited.....................................................................................................132
Characteristics of millipedes for identifications (1-3)............................139
Figures list of species
Figs. 2.1-2.8, 28.1a-28.2b Aponedyopus jeanae (Wang, 1957).................142, 177
Figs. 3.1-3.8, 29.1a-29.2c Aponedyopus reesi Wang, 1957.......................143, 176
Figs. 4.1-4.9, 30.1a-30.4 Aponedyopus shenghaii sp. n…………….....…144, 177
Figs. 5.1-5.9, 31.1-31.3b Aponedyopus sergeii sp. n................................. 146, 178
Figs. 6.1-6.10, 32.1a-32.4b Aposigipinius aviformis sp. n. .......................148, 179
Figs. 7.1-7.10, 33.1-33.3b Aposigipinius sierwaldae sp. n........................149, 180
Figs. 8.1-8.9, 34.1-34.4 Cawjeekelia kanoi (Takakuwa, 1943)..................151, 181
Figs. 9.1-9.8, 35.1a-35.2 Chamberlinius hualienensis Wang, 1956.........153, 182
Figs. 10.1-10.7, 36.1a-36.1b Chamberlinius parhualienensis sp. n...........154, 182
Figs. 11.1-11.7, 37.1a-37.2 Chamberlinius parpiceofasciatus sp. n..........155, 183

Figs.12.1-12.7, 38.1a-38.2 Chamberlinius piceofasciatus (Gressitt, 1941).............
............................................................................................................156, 183
Figs.12.8, 39.1-39.2 Chamberlinius shengmui Wang, 1957......................156, 181
Figs. 13.1-13.8, 40.1-40.4 Changius jhongshan sp. n................................157, 184
Figs. 14.1-14.9, 41.1-41.4b Chondromorpha xanthotricha (Attems, 1898)............
........................................................................................................158, 184
Figs.15.1-15.8, 42.1-42.4 Helicorthomorpha holstii (Pocock, 1895)........159, 185
Figs. 16.1-16.8, 43.1a-43.4 Inversispina taiwanspiralis sp. n...................160, 186
Figs.17.1-17.8, 44.1a-44.4 Kronopolites formosanus (Verhoeff, 1939b)...162, 187
Figs.19.1-19.8, 45.1a-45.3b Nedyopus latus sp. n.....................................164, 188
Figs. 20.1a-20.8, 46.1a-46.3 Nedyopus longitudinalis sp. n......................165, 188
Figs. 21.1-21.8, 47.1a-47.3 Nedyopus microps sp. n..................................167, 189
Figs. 22.1a-22.8, 48.1a-48.4 Nedyopus passericaudatus sp. n…………..168, 190
Figs.18.1-18.6 Nedyopus patrioticus (Attems, 1898)........................................163
Figs. 23.1-23.8, 49.1a-49.4 Nedyopus wui sp. n........................................169, 191
Figs. 24.1-24.7, 50.1-50.3b Orthomorpha coarctata (Saussure, 1860).....171, 191
Figs. 25.1a-25.7, 51.1a-51.1b Orthomorphella pekuensis (Karsch, 1881)..............
....................................................................................................................172, 192
Figs. 26.1a-26.6 Orthomorphella flavomarginata Gressitt, 1941......................173
Figs. 27.1a-27.7, 52.1a-52.2b Oxidus gracilis (Koch, 1847).....................174, 192
Distribution maps of species
The siteds of collection of Family Paradoxosomatidae in Taiwan.....................193
The distribution of genus Aponedyopus Verhoeff, 1939 in Taiwan………….194
The distribution of genus Aposigipinius gen. n. in Taiwan…………….…….195
The distribution of Cawjeekelia kanoi (Takakuwa, 1943) in Taiwan................196

The distribution of genus Chamberlinius Wang, 1956 in Taiwan………….....197
The distribution of Changius jhongshan sp. n. in Taiwan…….………………198
The distribution of Chondromorpha xanthotricha (Attems, 1898) in Taiwan...199
The distribution of Helicorthomorpha holstii (Pocock, 1895) in Taiwan..........200
The distribution of Inversispina taiwanspiralis sp. n. in Taiwan.......................201
The distribution of Kronopolites formosanus (Verhoeff, 1939b) in Taiwan…..202
The distribution of genus Nedyopus Attems, 1914 in Taiwan.........................203
The distribution of Orthomorpha coarctata (Saussure, 1860) in Taiwan..........204
The distribution of Orthomorphella pekuensis (Karsch, 1881) in Taiwan.........205
The distribution of Oxidus gracilis (Koch, 1847) in Taiwan.............................206
Index to tables
Table 1. A checklist of Paradoxosomatidae from Taiwan………………….…..207 Table 2. Synonyms list ......................................................................................209
Table 3. Species in Wang’s 1964 fauna haven’t been collected……………….21
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