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研究生:高千晴
研究生(外文):Chien-ching Kao
論文名稱:壽山地區人猴互動及遊客對棲地之衝擊
論文名稱(外文):Human interaction with Formosan macaques(Macaca cyclopis)and the human impacts on Mt. Longevity
指導教授:徐芝敏徐芝敏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsu, Minna J.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:生物科學系研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:99
中文關鍵詞:人猴互動敵對行為位序台灣獼猴承載量
外文關鍵詞:agonisticcarrying capacityMacaca cyclopisrank
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本研究由計數休息區內的遊客及獼猴數目與測量附近棲地裸露面積,用來估算與分析壽山地區遊客數目及獼猴數目之相關、休息區的利用方式與棲地破壞的面積,此有助於了解遊客的活動對壽山生態的影響。遊客上山目的、頻度與意見的問卷調查有助於了解遊客對於壽山地區的態度。另外,以掃描取樣、行為取樣與焦點追蹤,來記錄獼猴敵對行為,進而探討影響敵對模式與頻度分布的因素。以隨機取樣記錄遊客與臺灣獼猴互動之情況並分析人猴互動的行為模式,以探討是否會因人類的參與對獼猴的活動性產生影響。並由食物測驗與個體間敵對行為頻度來建立獼猴間的位序關係,並推算台灣獼猴優勢位序之模式。
壽山地區承受極大的遊憩壓力,從上午8點到下午18點整,遊客人數在假日整日估計約為6175人( ± 119, n = 10)較非假日3490人( ± 68, n = 10)高,且在16處休息區的植被覆蓋度減少率高達60%以上,故壽山地區遊客人數可能超過此地承載量。壽山地區人猴互動頻度會受到獼猴數量的影響且集中在下午時段;假日頻率為9.3次/小時高於非假日為3.3次/小時,且遊客餵食獼猴之頻度為0.59次/小時( ± 17.2, n = 131)。遊客先表現互動行為之次數為獼猴之17.5倍,且以經過(36.8%)與眼目注視(34.3%)最高,而成猴參與較其他性別年齡層獼猴為高。在人猴衝突中,遊客以工具或者肢體去驅趕成年雄猴(63.5%)最多。另外,台灣獼猴日間的行為以休息最多佔37.7%,移動佔24.6%,友好行為佔24.5%,而進食/覓食行為(9.5%)與敵對行為(2.6%)比例較低。獼猴敵對行為頻度隨著獼猴數目的增加而增加,且有遊客餵食干擾時敵對行為頻度較無餵食時高。
在行為取樣中,獼猴間之攻擊行為以張口威嚇最高(60.0%),而臣服行為多為逃離(37.0%)與驚叫反應(36.0%)。敵對行為發動者以成年雌猴與成年雄猴比例為多(依序為41.9%與40.4%),而反應者以幼猴與成年雌猴比例最多(依序為44.6%與32.6%)。台灣獼猴的對峙行為僅佔攻擊行為的3.1% - 3.6%,以此推測台灣獼猴之優勢位序模式屬於專制主義。在焦點追蹤中,每20分鐘平均攻擊頻度在成年雄猴為1.3次( ± 2.1, n=14)是成年雌猴0.5次( ± 0.9, n=17)的2.6倍。成年雄猴之攻擊頻度在交配季較非交配季為高,且在個體間有顯著變異;但攻擊頻度在成年雌猴卻無個體及季節性的變異。高、中與低位序階層並未顯著影響成年雌猴之攻擊頻度,但低位序成年雌猴臣服頻度較高位序者為高(P<0.05)。在食物測驗中,成年雄猴與成年雌猴之優勢位序模式(攻擊、躲避、不理會、位序關係不明確、AAD模式與NNI模式)相似,而成年雄猴對成年雄猴表現較高的敵對行為頻度,而其對成年雌猴與幼猴則較低。在各性別年齡層配對中,台灣獼猴表現張口威嚇後,成功得到食物的比例皆大於50%。
The purpose of this study was to analyze the interactions of visitors and Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis) at the Mt. Longevity. Data on the attitudes of visitors were collected by using questionnaires covering topics such as purpose, frequency and opinions of visitors. Scan samplings, agonistic behavior samplings and focal samplings were used as observational methods to record the agonistic behaviors of monkeys. The study also analyzed patterns of human-monkey interactions that recorded through ad libitum samplings, including visitor participation that influenced agonistic behaviors among the monkeys. Statistical analyses were used to analyze various factors that influenced agonistic frequency and patterns. The agonistic behaviors in dyads during food provision tests were used to establish their rank relationships and dominance styles.
Mt Longevity is a major recreational site in Kaohsiung city; the human pressure on Mt. Longevity was high and the tourist numbers were estimated as 6175 individuals ( ± 119, n = 10) in holidays and 3490 individuals ( ± 68, n = 10) in weekdays (between 08:00 to 18:00 hrs). The vegetation cover was apparently reduced above 60% in 16 recreational sites surveyed. The tourist numbers appeared to exceeding the carrying capacity of Mt. Longevity. The frequencies of human-monkey interaction were influenced by the number of monkeys and concentrated during the afternoons; the average frequency was 9.3 times / hr in holiday and 3.3 times / hr in weekday. The average frequency of tourists provisioned for monkeys was 0.59 times / hr ( ± 17.2, n = 131). An overall ratio of 17.5 : 1 between human-initiated and monkey-initiated interaction behaviors was found. Pass and eye contact accounted for over 67% of these interactions, and adult monkeys participated in human-monkey interaction more than the rest of the age / sex classes. During the conflict between human and macaques, most visitors used sticks or hands / legs to drive adult males away (63.5%). The average daily activities of Formosan macaques were: 37.7% inactive, 24.6% moving, 24.5% affiliation, eating / foraging 9.5% and agonistic behavior 2.6%. Frequencies of monkey aggressive behaviors increased along with increasing individuals of monkeys, and frequencies of their body aggressions and aggressions were higher during provision than without human disturbance.
Open mouth threat was the most frequent aggressive behavior expressed by the monkeys (60.0%), while fleeing (37.0%) and squealing (36.0%) were the most common submissive behaviors. Agonistic initiators were mostly adult females (41.9%) and males (40.4%) and agonistic reactors were mostly juveniles (44.6%) and adult females (32.6%). Monkey contest was only 2.8% - 3.9% of total aggressive behaviors and the study revealed that the dominance style of Formosan macaques was despotic social system. The frequency of aggressive behavior of adult males (1.3 ± 2.1 times / 20min, n = 14) was 2.6 times in average to that of adult females (0.5 ± 0.9 times / 20min, n = 17). It varied significantly among different adult males and it was higher in mating seasons than the non-mating seasons (p<0.05). However, the frequencies of aggressive behavior of adult females were similar between seasons and among ranks (low, middle and high) but the frequency of submissive behaviors was higher in low rank adult females than that of high rank ones (p<0.05). Adult male and female Formosan macaques had a similar dominance style (aggression, avoidance, ignoring, undecided, AAD pattern and NNI pattern) in food tests; adult males showed more frequent aggression toward adult males than to adult females and juveniles. The individuals who showed open mouth threat had a success rate of getting food for over 50%.
誌謝…………………………………………………………………...…..i
摘要…………………………………………………….….………….….ii
Abstract…………………………………………………..….………….iv
目錄…………………………………………………….…….….….…...vi

前言………………………………………………………….……...……1
材料與方法
一、研究地點……….…………………………………….………..……...5
二、壽山地區之利用概況…………………………………….………….5
三、遊客與獼猴間的互動行為觀察………..……………………...……..6
四、獼猴的敵對行為和社會互動……………..……………………….…9
五、以食物測驗獼猴間之優勢位序模式……………………………….12
六、資料計算與分析………………………………………….…………13
結果
一、壽山地區之利用概況……….…..…..………………………..……..16
二、遊客與獼猴間的行為…….………………………..…………..……20
三、獼猴活動性………………………….………………….….………..25
四、獼猴群內與群間的敵對行為……….……………………….….…..26
五、成猴之敵對行為模式…………………….………………………....30
六、以食物測驗獼猴間之優勢位序模式………….………..…………..35
討論…………………………………………………….…………….…40
參考文獻…………………………………………………..…………....49
表………………………………………………………….………….…56
圖…………………………………………………………..…………....69
附錄……………...……………………………………..….…………....93
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