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研究生:林樹宜
研究生(外文):Shu-i Lin
論文名稱:壽山地區台灣獼猴的親子行為
論文名稱(外文):Mother-Infant Relationships of Formosan Macaques(Macaca cyclopis)at Mt. Longevity
指導教授:徐芝敏徐芝敏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Minna J. Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:生物科學系研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:67
中文關鍵詞:台灣獼猴親子行為
外文關鍵詞:Formosan macaquesmother-infant relationships
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本研究探討壽山地區台灣獼猴之親子行為,觀察從嬰猴出生至24週大之間親子行為的變化。野外觀察時間自2002年1月至11月及2003年4月至12月,共紀錄時數450小時,有74隻嬰猴在4社群(Aa、Cd、C及F群)出生。雄嬰猴的死亡率(23.7%)高於雌嬰猴(2.8%);晚期出生的嬰猴死亡率(41.7%)則高於早期及高峰期出生的嬰猴(依序為7.7%, 8.2%)。嬰猴死亡率在初產雌猴為30.8%(4/13),在經產雌猴為9.8%(6/61),但關連性不顯著(p>0.05)。小社群(Aa & Cd)兩年的平均嬰猴死亡率最高52.1% ( ± 14.7, n=2),大社群F群之死亡率最低4.6%(± 0.3, n=2)。觀察期間共追蹤到43對親子對,其中有5隻嬰猴在觀察期間死亡或失蹤,最後存活對數為38對。
台灣獼猴之嬰猴性別會影響母猴攜帶1週大之嬰猴的比例,其在攜帶雌嬰猴時為99.5%(± 1.1, n=13)高於雄嬰猴時之93.8%(± 9.4, n=11)。大母系母猴之嬰猴吸吮的時間百分比42.4%(± 32.6, n=14)會高於小母系母猴之嬰猴32.4%(± 26.0, n=10)。而嬰猴之未成年姊姊的數量則會影響母猴與嬰猴腹面接觸的時間百分比。中低位序之母猴在嬰猴1個月大內主動接觸嬰猴的次數百分比(依序為58.4%、74.1%)高於高位序母猴(31.1%, p<0.05)。小社群之母猴在嬰猴5個月大時抱住嬰猴的時間比例(51.7%)高於大社群及中社群(依序為26.5%、15.5%)。母猴與嬰猴接觸、嬰猴吸吮、母猴攜帶嬰猴、母猴抱住嬰猴的時間百分比及母猴主動接觸嬰猴與母猴禁止嬰猴離開的次數百分比隨著嬰猴週齡增加而減少(p<0.05),母猴與嬰猴距離超過1公尺及母猴對嬰猴理毛的時間百分比則隨嬰猴週齡增加而增加(p<0.05)。母猴拒絕嬰猴靠近的次數百分比和嬰猴週齡則無線性關係(p>0.1)。在嬰猴行為發育方面,雄嬰猴在跳躍及自行覓食的行為發育較雌嬰猴早。當母猴受傷時,母猴與嬰猴接觸的時間百分比會比同時期親子對之平均接觸時間百分比少,而當嬰猴受傷時,母猴與嬰猴接觸的時間百分比則會比同時期親子對之平均接觸時間百分比高。
本研究認為臺灣獼猴異母照顧的行為較符合互惠的假說。雌猴照顧嬰猴的比例(87.3%, 234/268)高於雄猴(12.7%)。與記錄雌雄嬰猴之頻度相比較,異母之成年雌猴偏向於照顧雌嬰猴(χ²=8.5, df=1, p<0.005)。而成年雌猴(異母者)照顧非親屬關係之嬰猴的頻度81.6%(71/87)高於照顧有親屬關係之嬰猴的頻度18.4%(p<0.0001)。成年雌猴粗魯地抓取嬰猴的比例(87.4%, 83/95)會高於雌幼猴(7.4%, 7/95)。嬰猴被照顧的次數在嬰猴2個月大時最高,每小時7.6次(± 9.2, n=26),但嬰猴六個月大時,平均每小時僅0.9次(± 2.6, n=28)。而成年雄猴照顧嬰猴的行為極為稀少,僅於2002年9月紀錄到一隻成年雄猴(βAM)攜帶雄嬰猴的事件。
This study investigated the mother-infant relationships of Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis) at the Mt. Longevity during the first 24 weeks of infants’ age. The field observation took place from January to November 2002 and from April to December 2003. The total observation time recorded was 450 hours.
The death rate of infant males (23.7%) was higher than that of infant females (2.8%). The death rate of infants born at the later period (41.7%) was higher than those of infant born at the earlier and the peak periods (7.7%, 8.2%). The death rate of infants from primiparous females (30.8%, 4/13) was slightly higher than that of infants from multiparous females (9.8%, 6/61, p>0.05). During the observation period, I followed 43 mother-infant dyads, but 5 infants died or disappeared, and only 38 pairs left.
Mother–infant relationships in Formosan macaques were influenced by infant age and sex, matriline size and the number of immature sister of the infant. The percentages of time that mother-infant contact, sucking, mother carrying ,cradle infant, and the percentages of number that contact made by mother and mother restrain infant broken contact were decrease as infants grow older. On the other hand, the percentage of time that mother-infant distance > 1 meter and mother grooming increased as infants older. But mother reject infant contact was not affected by infant’s age. Adult females spent more time carrying female than male infants when infants were one week old. Developments in jumping and eating were seen earlier in male than female infants. The percentages of time in ventro-ventral contact in mother-infant dyads decreased as the number of infants’ immature sisters increased within infants’ first month of age. When a mother wounded, she spent less time in contacts with her infant; however, when the infant wounded, mother–infant dyads spent more time in contacts.
The data provide a better fit to the Reciprocity hypothesis because the percentage of the female (87.3%, 234/268) to take care of infants was higher than male (12.7%). The percentage of the adult female (allomother) to take care of female infants (59.0%, 79/134 ) is higher than taking care of male infants (41.0%, p<0.005 ). The percentage of the adult female that takes care of non-blood related infants (81.6%, 71/87) is considerably higher than the percentage of taking care of blood-related infants (18.4%, p<0.0001). The percentage of adult female that grabs infants roughly (87.4%, 83/95) is higher than juvenile female (7.4%, 7/95 ).
誌謝……………………………………………………………...………..i
摘要……………………………………………………………...……….ii
Abstract...……………………………………………………………….iv
目錄……………………………………………………………………...vi

前言………………………………………………………………………1
材料與方法………………………………………………………………4
一、 研究地點及對象……………………………………………….4
二、 紀錄方法……………………………………………………….5
三、 行為資料與統計分析………………………………………….7
結果..……………………………………………………………………11
一、 壽山地區臺灣獼猴的社群特徵……………………………...11
二、 親子行為……………………………………………………...13
三、 社群內其他成員與嬰猴的互動……………………………...23
四、 其他行為之紀錄……………………………………………...25
討論………………………………………………………….………….28
參考文獻…………………………………………………….………….33
表…………………………………………………………….………….38
圖…………………………………………………………….………….49
附錄………………………………………………………….………….63
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