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研究生:莊志文
研究生(外文):Chih-wen Chuang
論文名稱:臺灣獼猴敵對聲音之研究
論文名稱(外文):Context and Functions of Agonistic Calls in Formosan Macaques
指導教授:徐芝敏徐芝敏引用關係
指導教授(外文):M. J. Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:生物科學系研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:77
中文關鍵詞:再播放敵對聲音警戒聲臺灣獼猴
外文關鍵詞:playbackMacaca cyclopisagonistic callsalarm call
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摘要
本研究探討壽山地區臺灣獼猴各性別年齡層發出三種敵對聲音(Growl、Threat rattle與Vibrato growl)之情境以及測試獼猴對警戒物及警戒聲之行為反應。自然情境下獼猴的敵對互動與聲音記錄包含112次掃瞄取樣與100次20分鐘特定行為取樣。測試實驗包含11次帶狗測試以及102次再播放實驗。
在385次敵對事件中,三種單一敵對聲音佔61.8%,而兩種及兩種以上敵對聲音之混合型共四型佔38.2%。單一敵對聲音之事件中,當刺激物為人與狗時,獼猴皆以發出Threat rattle聲音最多(分別為51.7%與94.4%)。當刺激物為獼猴時,獼猴以發出Vibrato growl聲音之事件最多(44.3%)。在獼猴間之敵對互動中,獼猴發出三種敵對聲音之發聲比例以成年雄猴最高,其次為成年雌猴與幼猴,而以嬰猴最低。獼猴發出三種敵對聲音之次數有差異,其中Growl之聲音次數(7.9 ± 10.0 次)高於Threat rattle和Vibrato growl之聲音次數(3.3 ± 3.3, 2.9 ± 1.9 次, p<0.0002)。然而,獼猴互動的行為表現可解釋三種敵對聲音在功能上之差異。發聲者發出單一Growl時以追逐行為最多(45.6%),而接受者以逃離最多(57.9%)。當獼猴發出單一Threat rattle與Vibrato growl時,發聲者皆以張口威嚇行為最多(分別為80.5%與73.1%),而接受者的行為皆以躲閃最高(分別為43.9%,與31.9%)。Growl聲音傳達發聲者較為激烈的內在以及敵對情境,而接受者多以逃離以避免遭受到攻擊。此結果支持Smith(1981)提出聲音功能所傳達之訊息,包括物體、外界情境、發聲者之內在與其隨後可能之行為。且接受者聽到聲音時,其能結合聲音的結構與當時之情境而獲得訊息,並做出適當的反應。
臺灣獼猴成年雄猴與雄幼猴之警戒聲在六項聲音基本特性有差異。雄幼猴警戒聲之最高基礎頻率、中間基礎頻率以及調節基礎頻率均高於成年雄猴(p<0.0001),而其最高頻率、頻率總範圍與持續時間卻低於成年雄猴 (p<0.005)。此結果支持Fitch and Hauser(1987)提出之體型大小對聲音持續時間以及基礎頻率之影響。在獼猴三種聲音類型(成年雄猴與雄幼猴之警戒聲以及對照組Coo聲音)之再播放實驗中,成年雄猴之警戒聲較雄幼猴之警戒聲引起獼猴較強烈之行為反應(p<0.0001),如逃離或驚嚇。而所引起獼猴之行為反應以嬰猴最強,其次依序由幼猴、成年雌猴與成年雄猴遞減。其中,成猴之行為反應以原地警戒為主,幼猴之反應則以逃脫與驚嚇為主,而兩者眼睛所注視方向皆以轉頭注視播音方向最高。在再播放實驗中,F群獼猴對成年雄猴警戒聲之行為反應因地點之熟悉度而有差異,其行為反應在不熟悉之地點較為激烈(p<0.0001)。獼猴遭遇狗之兩種方式中,研究人員帶狗測試較狗叫聲之再播放引起獼猴較強之行為反應(p<0.0001)。
Abstract
This study analyzed the contexts of three types of agonistic calls (Growl, Threat rattle, Vibrato growl) in Formosan macaques and their responses to predators and alarm calls at Mt. Longevity. Under natural condition, 112 five-minute scan samplings and 100 twenty-minute behavior samplings were collected to record agonistic behaviors and agonistic calls of macaques. In addition, 11 dog-presence tests and 102 playback experiments were successfully conducted from January 2003 to April 2004.
Of 385 agonistic events, 61.8% comprise of vocal bouts contained units belonging to single type of agonistic calls, and 31.8% bouts were mixed units contained more than one type of agonistic calls. Among these three single types of agonistic calls, Vibrato growl was used most frequently during conspecific interactions (44.3%); Threat rattle was used toward human (51.7%) and dogs (94.4%). During intraspecies conflicts of macaques, the vocal rates of three single type agonistic calls decreased from adult males, adult females and juveniles to infants. The average units per bout of Growl was higher than that of Threat rattle and Vibrato growl (p<0.0002). However, the agonistic interactions explain the different functions of the three types of agonistic calls. Growl was frequently accomplished with chase of callers (45.6%), while flee was usually expressed by receivers (57.9%). When monkeys uttered Threat rattle or Vibrato growl, open mouth threat was the most frequent behavior expressed by callers (80.5% and 73.1%), while evade was most frequent behavior expressed by receivers (43.9% and 31.9%). Growl conveyed messages about intense callers and contexts, and receivers avoided damage through fleeing. These results support Smith (1981) hypothesis referential signal carry information about external objects, contexts or a caller internal state as reflected in the probability of its subsequent behavior pattern. Receivers are able to attribute a certain meaning and express appropriate responses by the combination of signal structure and the context in which they are exposed the call.
Six different acoustic features of alarm calls existed between adult males and juvenile males. Alarm calls from Juveniles have higher Maximal, Median and Modulation Fundamental Frequencies than from adult males (p<0.0001). But alarm calls from juveniles have lower Highest Frequency, Total Range of Frequency and Duration of each Unit than from adult males (p<0.005). The results support current theory that the duration and fundamental frequency reflect body size.
In the playback experiments, macaques responded stronger to alarm calls from adult males than from juvenile males (p<0.0001). The average response score of macaques toward alarm calls from playback experiments was highest from infants, followed by juveniles, adult females and adult males. Adult macaques often responded to playbacks by looking in the direction of the loudspeaker. Juveniles and infants most often responded to playback calls by escape and startle. In playback experiments of alarm calls from adult males, F troop had significant different responses in three different places, strongest in the unfamiliar place (p<0.0001). The presents of dog elicited macaques with stronger responses than playback of dog barks (p<0.0001).
目錄
誌謝……………………………………………………………………….i
摘要…………………………………………………….……………….ii
Abstract………………………………………………….…………….iv
目錄…………………………………………………….……………...vi

前言………………………………………………………….……..……1
材料與方法………………………………………………………….……4
一、研究地點與對象…………………………………………………….4
二、研究方法………..……….………………………………………..5
三、測量與計算……………………………………………………….…9
四、統計析……………………………………………………….…….10
結果……………………………………………………………………..12
一、敵對互動與三種敵對聲音………………………………..……..12
二、聲音頻譜與特性………………………………………….……...20
三、再播放實驗…………………………………………….………….23
討論…………………………………………………….…………….…29
參考文獻……………………………………………………………....33
表………………………………………………………….………….…38
圖……………………………………………………………………....55
圖版…………………………………………………………………..…70
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