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研究生:黃欣怡
研究生(外文):Hsin-i Huang
論文名稱:品牌的價格槓桿:產品類別與資訊數量效應之實驗研究
論文名稱(外文):Price Leverage of Brand: Experiments on Product Categories and Information Quantity Effects
指導教授:賴文彬賴文彬引用關係
指導教授(外文):Albert Wenben Lai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:89
中文關鍵詞:品牌產品類別涉入實驗法產品資訊價格知覺
外文關鍵詞:brandexperimental methodprice perceptioninvolvementproduct categoryproduct information
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摘 要
本研究主要探討品牌的價格槓桿效果在不同情況中的變化,尤其是在不同產品類別與在不同數量的產品知識的情況,品牌價格槓桿效果的差異。本研究首先確認品牌價格槓桿效果是否存在;亦即驗證 (1)品牌知名度強弱對消費者知覺價格高低的影響,以及 (2)品牌知名度對於消費者的產品價格上漲容忍度的影響。另外,本研究再操弄產品類別、消費者擁產品資訊的多寡、消費者對產品的涉入程度等三個變數,尋找品牌價格槓桿效果的發生條件。
本研究採用實驗法,以 3 (品牌知名度:高、中、低) x 3(產品類別:便利品、選購品、特殊品)x 2 (產品資訊:多、寡)x 2(涉入程度高、低) = 36組之因子設計為實驗設計的基本架構。本研究先舉行消費者座談會,蒐集對目標受測者可行的產品、品牌、價位、產品資訊、以及產品屬性等。最後實驗採用的產品有六項:鮮奶、衛生紙、女用皮包、休閒鞋、手錶、數位相機,並依各類別產品,市場上品牌知名度的高低選定適當對應的品牌。實驗的受測對象為中山大學學生144名,共獲取有效資料815筆。
實驗結果以因素分析、ANOVA、MANOVA進行資料分析。資料分析的結果所支持的命題包括:(1) 消費者對品牌知名度較高的產品有較高的價格知覺;(2)品牌價格槓桿效果在不同產品類別之間有顯著的差別;(3) 消費者對產品資訊擁有數量的多寡對品牌價格槓桿效果沒有影響。
Abstract
This study mainly investigated the changing of pricing leverage of brand among different situations, especially, among distinctive product categories and among various levels of product knowledge which consumers obtained. Firstly, the research tries to verify existence of the hypothesized pricing leverage of brand; that is to test (1) the influences of levels of brand awareness on consumers’ price perception; and (2) the effect of brand awareness on consumers’ tolerance over the price increasing. In addition, this research manipulates three other variables, namely: product category, product knowledge which consumer obtained, and consumers’ involvement toward the product in interest, as to seek and explore the conditions on which the pricing leverage of brand can occur.
As experimentation is the method of this study, it utilizes a 3 ( brand awareness: high, middle, low) x 3 ( product category: convenience goods, shopping goods, specialty goods) x 2 ( product knowledge: much, little) x 2 (involvement: high, low) factorial design as its basic framework of experiment design. A focus group depth interview discussion, which participants were from target subject group, was held to collect the appropriate or suitable products, brands, pricing levels, product information, and product attributes, ... etc. The products eventually used in the experiments are six items: fresh milk, toilet tissue, hand-bag, leisure shoes, watch, and digital camera. According to the products chosen, the brand names are selected based on the levels of awareness in the markets in which the subject purchase. The subjects of the experiments are 144 students of National Sun Yat-sen University located in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. There are 815 entries of data obtained from the subject in the experiments.
Factor analysis, ANOVA, and MANOVA are used to analyze the data obtained from the experiment. The analysis findings support several propositional statements, including (1) the higher level of market awareness a brand enjoys, the higher price perception consumers acquire for it; (2) Among the difference product categories, the effect of price leverage of brand varies; (3) there is no influence from the magnitude of product knowledge which consumer obtained on the price leverage of brand.
目錄
第一章 序論 --------------------------------------- 1

第二章 文獻探討
第一節 品牌、品牌聯想、品牌知名度 --------------------- 3
第二節 產品類別與涉入理論 ----------------------------- 7
第三節 產品資訊與產品知識------------------------------11
第四節 參考價位、價格知覺與價格接受範圍----------------16
第五節 概念化架構------------------------------------- 20

第三章 研究之實證架構
第一節 研究架構 ------------------------------------- 22
第二節 研究假設 ------------------------------------- 23
第三節 研究變數與操作性定義 -------------------------- 27
第四節 座談會與概念測試 ----------------------------- 30

第四章 實驗設計與實驗過程
第一節 實驗設計 ------------------------------------ 35
一、實驗變數-------------------------------------------- 35
二、實驗組之隨機化處理---------------------------------- 36
三、實驗工具之設計-------------------------------------- 37
第二節 實驗流程--------------------------------------- 40
第三節 問卷回收與處理--------------------------------- 44


第五章 資料分析與研究發現----------------------------- 47
一、假設驗證-------------------------------------------- 47
二、檢定結果-------------------------------------------- 61

第六章 結論------------------------------------------- 62

附錄一 產品品牌座談會之討論主題暨意見填答 ------------ 65

附錄二 正式實驗內容暨填答卷—以第1組為例 ------------- 73

參考文獻 ----------------------------------------------- 87


表目錄
表3-1 座談會—品牌初選表 ----------------------------31
表3-2 座談會—購買決策品牌重視產品類型列表 ---------- 32
表3-3 座談會—實驗產品挑選結果(初選) -----------------33
表3-4 概念測試—實驗產品挑選結果(正式) ---------------34
表4-1 實驗設計—因子設計總表 -------------------------35
表4-2 實驗設計—實驗變數隨機化------------------------37
表4-3 組別—產品品牌—價格對照表 -------------------- 41
表4-4 無涉入組之樂透號碼亂數表 ---------------------- 41
表4-5 樣本人口統計分析表 -----------------------------44
表4-6 樣本次數分配表 ---------------------------------45
表4-7 品牌知名度確認檢定之ANOVA簡表-------------------46
表5-1 品牌價格槓桿檢定分析表—價格知覺--------------- 48
表5-2 品牌價格槓桿檢定分析表—價格知覺(不同品目)------48
表5-3 品牌價格槓桿檢定分析表—價格知覺(品類差異)------49
表5-4 品牌價格槓桿檢定分析表—價格知覺(資訊多寡)----- 49
表5-5 品牌價格槓桿檢定分析表—價格知覺(涉入程度)------50
表5-6 品牌價格槓桿檢定分析表—價格知覺(產品熟悉度)----50
表5-7 品牌價格槓桿檢定分析表—價格容忍度--------------51
表5-8 品牌價格槓桿檢定分析表—價格容忍度(不同品目)----51
表5-9 品牌價格槓桿檢定分析表—價格容忍度(品類差異)----52
表5-10 品牌價格槓桿檢定分析表—價格容忍度(資訊多寡)----52
表5-11 品牌價格槓--------------------------------------53
表5-12 品牌價格槓桿檢定分析表—價格容忍度(產品熟悉度)--53
表5-13 品牌價格槓桿檢定分析表—整體價格反應------------55
表5-14 情境設計(資訊*涉入)-----------------------------56
表5-15 品牌價格槓桿檢定分析表—情境(資訊*涉入) --------56
表5-16 品牌價格槓桿檢定分析表—情境(資訊*涉入)---------57
表5-17 情境設計(熟悉度*涉入)---------------------------57
表5-18 品牌價格槓桿檢定分析表—情境(熟悉度*涉入)-------58
表5-19 品牌價格槓桿檢定分析表—情境(熟悉度*涉入)-------58
表5-20 情境設計(品類*資訊*涉入)------------------------59
表5-21 品牌價格槓桿檢定分析表—情境(品類*資訊*涉入)----59
表5-22 品牌價格槓桿檢定分析表—情境(品類*資訊*涉入)----60
表5-23 檢定結果總匯表----------------------------------61

圖目錄
圖2-1 知覺價格與價格接受範圍--------------------------17
圖2-2 理論架構圖--------------------------------------20
圖3-1 實証架構圖--------------------------------------22
圖4-1 實驗結構流程圖----------------------------------39
圖6-1 檢定結果簡圖------------------------------------63
一、 中文部份

王淑慧 (民86年)。產品種類、品牌知名度、參考價格與涉入程度對消費者購買意願的影響。國立成功大學企業管理系碩士班,碩士論文。

黃俊英 (1996)。行銷研究。台北,華泰華書局股份有限公司。

黃俊英 (2000)。多變量分析。台北,中國經濟企業研究所出版。華泰文化事業公司總經銷。

D.A.Aaker原著,(1998) 沈雲聰、湯宗勳(譯),品牌行銷法則,台北,商業周刊出版,p43。


二、 英文部份
Alba, J. W., & Hutchinson, J. W. (1987). Dimensions of consumer expertise. Journal of Consumer Research, 13, 411-444.

Berkowitz, E. N., & Walton, J. R. (1980). Contextual inference on consumer price response: An experimental analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 17(Dec.), 349-358.

Biswas, A. (1992). The moderating role of brand familiarity in reference price perception. Journal of Business Research, 25(Nov), 251-262.

Biswas, A., Krishnan, & Burton, S. (1999). Consumer evaluation of reference price advertisements: Effects of other brands'' prices and semantic cues. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 18, 52-65.

Biswas, A., & Blair, E. A. (1991). Contextual effects of reference prices in retail advertisement. Journal of Marketing, 55, 1-12.

Brucks, M. (1985). The effects of product class knowledge on information search behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 12, 1-16.

Dodds, W. B., Monroe, K. B., & Grewal, D. (1991). Effects of price, brand, and store information on buyers'' product evaluations. Journal of Marketing Research, 28(3), 307-319.

Dodson, J. A., Tybout, A. M., & Sternthal, B. (1978). Impact of deals and deal restriction on brand switching. Journal of Marketing Research, 15(Feb.), 72-81.

Frankenberger, K. D., & Liu, R. (1994). Does consumer knowledge affect consumer responses to advertised reference price claim. Psychology and Marketing. 11(3), 235-251.

Gardner, M. P. (1984). Advertising effects on attributes recalled and criteria used for brand evaluations. Journal of Consumer Research, 21, 145-153.

Grewal, D. (1989). The effect of intrinsic, extrinsiccues and reference prices on buyers'' perceptions of quality and value. Unpublished dissertation, Virginia Institution and state university.

Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 57, 1-22.

Leavitt, H. J. (1954). A note on some experimental findings about the meaning of price. Journal of Business, 27, 205-210.

Lichtenstein, D. R., & William, O. B. (1988). An investigation of consumer evaluations of reference price discount claims, Journal of Business Research, 17, 189-200.

McGoldrick, P. J., Betts, E. J., & Wilson, A. F. (1999). Modeling consumer price cognition: Evidence from discount and superstore sectors. The Service Industries Journal, 19, 171-193.

Monroe, K. B., & Lee, A. Y. (1999). Remembering versus knowing: Issues in buyer'' processing of price information. Academy of Marketing Science Journal, 27, 207-225.

Monroe, K. B., & Petroshius, S. M. (1981). Buyers'' perceptions of price: An update of the evidence. Perspectives in Consumer Behavior, 43-55.

Rao, A. R., & Monroe, K. B. (1988). The moderating effect of prior knowledge on cue utilization in product evaluations. Journal of Consumer Research, 15(Sept.), 253-264.

Rajendran, K. N., & Tellis. G. J. (1994). Contextual and temporal components of reference price. Journal of Marketing, 58(Jan.), 22-34.

Urbany, J. E., & Bearden, W. O. (1990). The effects of advertised price
information on value perceptions. Unpublished manuscript, Department of
Marketing, University of South California.

Urbany, J. E., Bearden, W. O., & Weilbaker, D. C. (1988). The effect of plausible and exaggerated reference prices on consumer perceptions and price search. Journal of Consumer Research, 15, 95-102.
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