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研究生:楊剴棚
研究生(外文):Kai-peng Yang
論文名稱:多國籍企業兩岸子公司價值活動特質與資源不對稱性對台灣子公司存續影響之研究
論文名稱(外文):An Empirical Study of The Influence of The Characteristics of Value Activities and Unsymmetry of Resources of MNC Cross-Strait Subsidiaries on The Subsistence of Taiwan Subsidiary
指導教授:李清潭李清潭引用關係方至民方至民引用關係
指導教授(外文):Qing-Tan LeeCher-Ming Fong
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:307
中文關鍵詞:多國籍企業資源價值存續關係兩岸子公司大陸子公司價值活動台灣子公司
外文關鍵詞:relationTaiwan subsidiaryvaluevalue activityresourceCross-Strait subsidiariesMainland China subsidiarysubsistenceMultinational Corporations
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隨著中國大陸市場的崛起,多國籍企業一方面深深為其所吸引,另一方面則為進入中國市場的高失敗率所苦。在經營中國市場的過程中,多國籍企業往往借重台灣子公司,利用其作為經營進入中國的跳板。然而,隨著大陸子公司的逐漸茁壯,許多多國籍企業台灣子公司似乎在中國子公司的替代威脅下,紛紛產生了存續與否的問題。

本研究所關注的焦點為多國籍企業台灣子公司的存續威脅問題,以及兩岸子公司間的對偶關係。在觀察上,本研究以台灣子公司對於多國籍企業而言的價值、兩岸子公司資源不對稱性、價值活動特質三大範疇之自變數群,來探索其對於台灣子公司存續威脅程度及兩岸子公司關係的影響。分別使用子公司策略性角色、資源依賴理論、資源基礎觀點、價值活動理論、以及網絡觀點探討自變數對於台灣子公司存續威脅與兩岸子公司關係之影響。

本研究使用問卷調查方式收集資料,母體來源為鄧白式公司所出版的1999 / 2000年在台外資企業名錄,所調查的產業為製造業以及非金融業之服務業,MNC 母公司掌控子公司50%以上之股權、規模為30個人以上,迄2004年4月在台仍持續經營者之多國籍企業在台子公司。本研究利用利用多元迴歸分析、共變異數分析及雙元邏輯斯迴歸來檢視前述自變數對於台灣子公司存續威脅程度及兩岸子公司關係之影響。在分析59家MNC 在台子公司之後,研究結果顯示台灣子公司的策略重要性、台灣子公司資源與能耐高低、台灣子公司與多國籍企業整合程度、台灣子公司當地回應程度、台灣子公司知識獲取程度、台灣子公司有形資產領先程度、台灣子公司經營能力領先程度、多國籍企業價值活動全球整合程度、台灣子公司價值活動與當地產業鑲嵌程度、兩岸子公司價值活動相似程度對於台灣子公司存續威脅有顯著之影響。另外,不同關係類型之背後亦有不同的影響成因。而不同類型之兩岸子公司關係,
亦意涵了不同程度大小的台灣子公司存續威脅程度。
With the emergence of China market, MNCs are so attracted by it on one hand, and so afraid of the high failure ratio of entering the Mainland China market. During the process of chasing the Mainland China market, MNCs usually rely on the subsidiaries of Taiwan for support, and utilize it to enter Mainland China. However, with the marker of Mainland China turning bigger and bigger, lots of MNC Taiwan subsidiaries seem to face the threat of substitution of China Subsidaries, and come up with the question weather
Taiwan subsidiaries should be continued or not.
This study has focused on the subsistence of Taiwan subsidiaries and the relationships between the Cross-Strait subsidiaries. This research is under the observation of Taiwan subsidiaries’ value, Cross-Strait subsidiaries’ resource asymmetry, and the nature of value activities, to explore how these variables influence the subsistence of MNCs’ Taiwan subsidiaries. By Use of the strategic role of MNC subsidiaries, subsidiaries’ dependence on MNCs, resource based view, and subsidiary’s network characteristics, this research probe into the independent variable that influence the subsistence of Taiwan subsidiaries and the relation between Taiwan and China subsidiaries.
This research uses questionary survey to collect data. The population is the list of foreignenterprises in Taiwan published by Dun and Bradstreet, 1999 / 2000. The subsidiaries belong to manufacturing industry and non-financial service industry and are owned by foreign MNCs. The scale of these subsidiaries is above 30 people and still
under operation by now. We use multi-regression analysis, ANCOVA analysis, and binominal logistic regression analysis to examine the effects of independent variables on Taiwan subsidiaries’ threat of subsistence. After analyzing 59 MNCs’ Taiwan subsidiaries, the results reveal that the importance of Taiwan subsidiary, the resource and capability of Taiwan subsidiaries, the integration of Taiwan subsidiaries with MNCs, the local responsiveness of Taiwan subsidiaries , the industrial embracement of Taiwan
subsidiaries, the similarity of value activities between Taiwan and China subsidiaries, do have influence on Taiwan subsidiaries’ subsistence. In addation, different kinds of
relation between Taiwan and China subsidiaries have its specific combination of dependent variables, and imply different degree of threat of subsistence.
章 節 目 錄

第一章 緒論

第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的 6
第三節 章節結構 9

第二章 文獻探討

第一節 子公司對於多國籍企業的價值 11
第二節 兩子公司間資源、能耐不對稱性 17
第三節 價值活動的本質 27
第四節 兩子公司間關係對於子公司存續的影響 35
第五節 子公司存續的意涵 51
第六節 觀念性架構 57


第三章 研究方法

第一節 研究對象的選擇 58
第二節 研究方法的選擇 59
第三節 預期可能遭遇的問題 61
第四節 研究限制 63
第五節 研究步驟 65
第六節 題旨重申與展望 66

第四章 個案分析

第一節 個案研究方法 67
第二節 個案公司背景 71
一、 亨斯邁公司 71
二、 康寧玻璃公司 75
三、 皇家飛利浦公司 78
四、 麥當勞公司 83
第三節 個案諸特質比較 87
第四節 個案資料與初步理論架構的對應 91
第五節 研究架構的修正 103

第五章 研究設計

第一節 研究架構的確立 107
第二節 研究命題推導 108
第三節 研究假設的匯整 125
第四節 研究樣本與資料收集 127
第五節 研究變數的操作性定義 130
第六節 統計分析方法 154
第七節 研究變數效度與信度分析 157

第六章 研究結果分析與討論

第一節 研究樣本基本分析 161
一、研究變數之描述性統計 161
二、變數相關係數表 162
三、樣本代表性分析 164
四、樣本敘述統計 165
五、樣本特徵之交叉分析 168
六、樣本變數之差異性分析 180
七、研究變數效度分析 189
第二節 子公司角色分類 200
第三節 台灣子公司存續威脅影響因素實證結果 209
第四節 兩岸子公司關係影響因素實證結果 233
第五節 自變數對兩岸子公司關係對於存續威脅的影響實證結果 249

第七章 研究結論與建議

第一節 自變數對於台灣子公司存續威脅程度及兩岸子公司關係的影響 256
第二節 本研究自變數對於兩岸子公司關係的影響 261
第三節 兩岸子公司關係對台灣子公司存續威脅程度的影響 262
第四節 建議 263


參考文獻
中文部分 266
英文部分 268

附錄一、個案研究訪談問題(一) 283
附錄二、個案研究訪談問題(二) 286
附錄三、本研究問卷 289

圖 目 錄

圖1-1、近十一年僑外對台投資額變化圖 4
圖2-1、觀念性架構 55
圖3-1、本研究流程圖 65

圖5-1、本研究修正後之研究架構 108
圖5-2、本研究統計方法使用說明圖 157
圖6-1、實證後之台灣子公司存續威脅模型修正架構 232


表 目 錄

表1-1、2003年出口總額前十名國家 2
表1-2、2003年進口總額前十名國家 2
表1-3、近十年中國大陸經濟成長率 2
表1-4、近十一年僑外對台投資統計表 4
表2-1、子公司管理之三大研究主軸 12
表2-2、子公司策略性角色之分類 15
表2-3、資源的相似名詞與代表學者 18
表2-4、使用不同名詞解釋能力學者之歸類 19
表2-5、各學者對於能耐之定義 21
表2-6、各學者對於能力之定義 22
表2-7、眾學者對資源的分類 23
表2-8、以商業觀點探究關係之相關研究 36
表2-9、海峽兩岸貿易相依度 40
表4-1、個案母公司諸特質摘要 86
表4-2、個案台灣子公司特質摘要 88
表4-3:個案台灣子公司各類別特質匯整 90
表5-1、本研究研究假設匯整 125
表5-2、本研究變數信度分析表 160
表6-1、本研究變數描述性統計分析表 162
表6-2、本研究變數之相關係數矩陣表 163
表6-3、本研究樣本之代表性分析 165
表6-4、本研究樣本之多國籍企業母國籍分佈 166
表6-5、本研究樣本之多國籍企業母子公司成立年度及國際化年度 167
表6-6、本研究樣本之台灣子公司規模 168
表6-7、多國籍企業母公司國籍及產業別交叉分析表 169
表6-8、多國籍企業母公司國籍及製造活動交叉分析表 170
表6-9、多國籍企業母公司國籍及台灣子公司持有方式交叉分析表 170
表6-10、多國籍企業母公司國籍及多國籍企業進入台灣方式交叉分析表 171
表6-11、製造活動及產業別交叉分析表 172
表6-12、持有台灣子公司方式及產業別交叉分析表 172
表6-13、多國籍企業進入台灣方式及產業別交叉分析表 174
表6-14、多國籍企業持有台灣子公司方式及製造功能交叉分析表 175
表6-15、多國籍企業進入台灣方式及製造功能交叉分析表 175
表6-16、多國籍企業持有台灣子公司方式及多國籍企業進入台灣方式
交叉分析表 176
表6-17、多國籍企業國籍與母公司成立年數、國際化年數、台陸子公
司成立年數關係表 178
表6-18、多國籍企業國籍與持股比例、台灣子公司年銷售額、台灣子
公司員工數關係表 179
表6-19、多國籍企業國籍與母公司成立年數、國際化年數、台陸子公
司成立年數關係表 180
表6-20、不同國籍下各種變數之ANOVA分析表 181
表6-21、不同產業別下各種變數之ANOVA分析表 183
表6-22、現階段兩岸子公司不同關係下各種變數之ANOVA分析表 185
表6-23、未來三到五年兩岸子公司不同關係走向下各種變數之ANOVA
分析表 186
表6-24、台灣子公司策略重要性主成份分析表 187
表6-25、台灣子公司資源能力多寡主成份分析表 188
表6-26、台灣子公司與MNC的整合程度主成份分析表 189
表6-27、台灣子公司當地回應程度主成份分析表 190
表6-28、台灣子公司將知識移轉的程度主成份分析表 190
表6-29、台灣子公司知識獲取的程度主成份分析表 191
表6-30、台灣子公司有形資產相對多寡主成份分析表 192
表6-31、台灣子公司無形資產相對多寡主成份分析表 193
表6-32、台灣子公司人力資源相對多寡主成份分析表 194
表6-33、台灣子公司經營能力相對多寡主成份分析表 194
表6-34、多國籍企業價值活動全球整合程度成份分析表 195
表6-35、台灣子公司價值活動與當地產業鑲嵌程度成份分析表 196
表6-36、兩岸子公司所執行價值活動相似程度主成份分析表 197
表6-37、台灣子公司價值活動可移轉程度主成份分析表 198
表6-38、兩岸子公司價值活動整合程度主成份分析表 199
表6-39、台灣子公司存續威脅程度程度主成份分析表 200
表6-40、子公司角色之集群分析與各組中點(一)策略重要性架構 201
表6-41、台灣子公司角色不同下各種變數之ANOVA分析表(一)
策略重要性架構 202
表6-42、子公司角色之集群分析與各組中點(二)整合回應架構 203
表6-43、台灣子公司角色不同下各種變數之ANOVA分析表(二)
整合回應架構 204
表6-44、子公司角色之集群分析與各組中點(三)知識經營架構 206
表6-45、台灣子公司角色不同下各種變數之ANOVA分析表(三)
知識經營架構 208
表4-46、自變數對存續威脅程度影響之假設彙整表 210
表6-47、本研究自變數對台灣子公司存續威脅之影響 211
表4-48、自變數對存續威脅程度影響之假設實證結果彙整表 226
表6-49、本研究自變數對兩岸子公司是否呈現替代關係之影響
(羅吉斯迴歸) 234
表6-50、自變數對兩岸子公司是否呈現替代關係之假設彙整表 235
表6-51、本研究自變數對兩岸子公司是否呈現獨立關係之影響
(羅吉斯迴歸) 236
表6-52、自變數對兩岸子公司是否呈現獨立關係之假設彙整表 237
表6-53、本研究自變數對兩岸子公司是否呈現互補關係之影響
(羅吉斯迴歸) 238
表6-54、自變數對兩岸子公司是否呈現互補關係之假設彙整表 239
表6-55、關係與存續威脅假設匯整 249
表6-56、現階段兩岸子公司不同關係走向下各種變數之單尾
ANOVA分析表 250
表6-57、兩岸子公司現階段不同關係之ANOVA分析表 251
表6-58、未來三到五年兩岸子公司不同關係走向下各種變數之單尾
ANOVA分析表 253
表6-59、兩岸子公司未來三到五年不同關係之ANOVA分析表 255
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