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研究生:李宜嬪
研究生(外文):I-ping Lee
論文名稱:探討德奧音樂出版業發展與古典樂派室內樂曲及獨奏曲之創作
論文名稱(外文):The Study of the Correspondence between Music Publishers and the Development of Chamber and Solo Music in Germany and Austria in the Classical Era
指導教授:蔡順美蔡順美引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shun-Mei Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:音樂學系研究所
學門:藝術學門
學類:音樂學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:110
中文關鍵詞:音樂出版業古典樂派
外文關鍵詞:Music PublishingClassical Music
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法國大革命與工業革命於政治及經濟上帶來的衝擊,使得中產階級興起並帶動音樂環境的改變,樂譜出版業亦受此環境的影響而快速發展。本文以探討出版商、作曲家、愛樂大眾間的互動關聯為主要研究方向。全文的內容除序論與結論外包含三章,第一章剖析德奧當時的社會背景與音樂環境;第二章探討當時的德奧音樂出版業以及其出版偏好,並選擇當時德奧最具代表性的「阿塔利亞出版社」和「布萊得可夫與哈特爾出版社」,作更深入的說明;第三章針對海頓、莫札特、貝多芬室內樂與獨奏曲之創作與出版歷程,解析作曲家的創作與出版商之相互關係。
在社會與音樂環境的改變下,德奧音樂出版業在十八世紀末快速發展,中產階級為樂譜之主要消費者,出版商須了解愛樂者之需求而發行樂譜,其中室內樂曲及獨奏曲是多數的流行曲種中,銷售量最突出的樂曲,並且亦利用報刊媒體等行銷方式影響大眾的喜好。研究之結果顯示三位作曲家海頓、莫札特、貝多芬的經濟背景不同,其出版歷程亦有所差異。海頓在工作條約限制解除得以出版樂譜時,仍持續獲得宮廷給薪,能較少受限於出版商,並將其同首創作多次賣出;莫札特與貝多芬則因未有宮廷固定給薪而必須多向出版商推銷其作品,亦少有一稿多售之情況。貝多芬的處境與前二位截然不同,他曾以報紙廣告迫使出版商撤銷其盜版樂譜,並且利用出版商競爭出版之優勢而調漲酬勞。此時期的音樂出版商,為作曲家與愛樂者提供了兩者間音樂傳遞的管道,並且在藝術性與商業性的選擇,對浪漫樂派音樂風格發展有深遠的影響。
The French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution brought impact in both politics and economics that cause the rise of middle classes and changing environment in the music society. Under the influence of the new environment, the business of music publishers grow rapidly, and publishing music scores became a part of composers’ major income. The chamber music and works for solo instruments are the most popular genres that middle classes and bourgeois are more interested during the classical period. The study focuses on the relationships between music publishers, composers, and public amateur. The thesis consists of three chapters, in addition to the introduction and conclusion. Chapter one contains the overview of the background of the society and musical environments in the late eighteenth century in Germany and Austria. Chapter two describes the music publishers in Germany and Austria, with emphasis on two leading publishers, Artaria and Breitkopf & Härtel. The third chapter focuses the discussion of how publishing process effects the composers’ writing.
By the end of the eighteenth century, due to the changing of the social and musical environments, music publishers were developed rapidly. Bourgeois are the major consumers, and the publication of scores depended on the needs of the amateur, that publishers gained their taste through the newspaper advertisement. The chamber music and works for solo instruments are the most selling items among the popular genres. Because there are different economic background from Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven, their publishing process are not the same. After discharging from the Esterházy, Haydn started publishing his works. He, however, still remained part of payments from the Esterházy, and didn’t depend on publishers entirely. Haydn, sometimes tried to sell the same work several times. Mozart and Beethoven didn’t get paid from the court, they had to promote their works to publisher. Beethoven’s publishing process is different from Haydn, and Mozart, he had forced the publisher stop to publish the pirate edition, and got more money by quoting at the publishers. Furthermore, between the choices of art and commercialism, they have a significant influence on the music of the Romantic era.
序論 ····················································1

第一章 雙元革命期間之德奧音樂社會環境 ·················11
第一節 社會環境 ······································11
第二節 音樂環境 ······································15

第二章 十八世紀末至十九世紀初德奧音樂出版商概述········20
第一節 背景說明 ····································20
第二節 音樂出版商與大眾 ·····························26
第三節 阿塔利亞出版社 ·······························31
第四節 布萊得可夫與哈特爾出版社 ······················35

第三章 德奧音樂出版商與作曲家之互動 ··················41
第一節 海頓室內樂曲與獨奏曲之出版
一、 室內樂曲與獨奏曲之出版 ························41
二、 海頓與其出版商之互動 ··························44
三、 海頓的經濟與出版關係 ··························54
第二節 莫札特室內樂曲與獨奏曲之出版
一、 室內樂曲與獨奏曲之出版 ························55
二、 莫札特與其出版商之互動 ························56
三、 莫札特的經濟與出版關係 ························64
第三節 貝多芬室內樂曲與獨奏曲之出版
一、 室內樂曲與獨奏曲之出版 ························68
二、 貝多芬與其出版商之互動 ························73
三、 貝多芬的經濟與出版關係 ························78


結 論 ················································82
附錄一 ················································91
附錄二 ················································95
附錄三 ················································96
附錄四 ················································101
附錄五 ················································104
參考書目 ··············································107
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